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Research Technical Report

Annotated Bibliography: Human-Made Sound Impacts on Marine Organisms

Jacobi, M. (1998)

Final Report to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Technical Report #1998-01.


The following bibliography and associated abstracts were compiled in response to a request by the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS), Sanctuary Advisory Council (SAC). Because of on going interest in the impacts of human-made sound on MBNMS resources, the SAC requested that the MBNMS Research Activities Panel (RAP) provide an overview of the topic. The RAP felt a comprehensive overview would be an extensive project, and that the MBNMS should direct more funds to fill gaps in knowledge for these types of resource management questions. However, they agreed to work with MBNMS staff to develop an annotated bibliography on the sound topic. References were compiled using Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts, Melvyl (Univ. of California literature search system), RAP member references collections, the bibliography of the MBNMS site characterization ( and the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) Environmental Impact Statement. When available, an abstract of individual publications was included. Constructive comments on the initial draft were made by Andrew De Vogelaere, Greg Cailliet, Dan Costa, Jack Wickham, and Christine Erbe. If you would like to comment on this document or add references, please write to MBNMS Research, 299 Foam St. Suite D, Monterey, CA 94940.


ACMRR Working Party. 1977. Report of the Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research Working Party on Marine Mammals. FOA Fish Rep. no.194.

Acevedo, A. 1991. Interactions between boats and bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the entrance to Ensenada de la Paz, Mexico. Aquat. Mamm. 17:120-124.

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). 1995. Final environmental impact statement for the California acoustic thermometry of ocean climate project and its associated marine mammal research program. Marine Acoustics Inc., Arlington,VA.

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1995. Final environmental impact statement for the Kauai acoustic thermometry of ocean climate project and its associated marine mammal research program. Marine Acoustics Inc., Arlington, VA.

Akal, T. and J.M. Berkson, editors. 1986. Ocean seismo-acoustics, low frequency underwater acoustics. Plenum, New York. 915p.

Anderson, S. 1970. Auditory sensitivity of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena. Invest. Cetacea 2:260-263.

Anderson, S.S. and A.D. Hawkins. 1978. Scarring seals by sound. Mammal Rev. 8:19-24.

Awbrey, F.T. 1980. Sound spectra on San Miguel Island, 1979-1980. p. 22-246. In: Jehl, J.R., and C.F. Cooper, editors. Potential effects of space shuttle sonic booms on the biota and geology of the California Channel Islands: research reports. Tech Rep. 80-1. Rep. from Cent. Mar. Stud., San Diego State Univ., and Hubbs/ Sea World Res. Inst., San Diego, CA, for U.S. Air Force Space Div. 246p.

Awbrey, F.T., J.S.Leatherwood, D.K. Ljungblad and W.E. Evan. 1977. Acoustic conditions of tuna purse seining. Proceedings (abstracts) of the second conference on the biology of marine mammals; 1977 December 12-15; San Diego, California.

Abstract- The possibility that high sound levels generated during purse seining for yellowfin tuna might seriously hinder porpoises' ability to avoid nets was examined during ten sets by the M/V Elizabeth C.J. in October 1976. Porpoises experienced sound pressure levels (SPL) from speedboats of 120 to 125 dB (re 1 mu Pa) with the strongest peak at about 2 kHz. Sound energy from the seiner was concentrated below 2 kHz with a strong peak at 360 Hz. Propeller beats at chase speeds caused the sound to pulsate and overall SPL near the porpoises reached 130 dB. Occasional very loud noises produced by bow thrusters or speedboats being used to keep nets open exceeded the level of porpoise whistles and clicks by 10 to 15 dB. Because vessel noise was concentrated at very low frequencies, very little effect on the porpoises' high frequency vocalizations was apparent. Whistles and echolocation clicks were emitted during the entire time the animals were held and were apparently not affected by increases or decreases in noise from the ship and its boats. Noise from the Elizabeth C.J. seems to be of little importance as a factor contributing to porpoise mortality.


Awbrey, F.T., W.E. Evans, and B.S. Stewart. 1983. Behavioral responses of wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) to noise from oil drilling. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74, Suppl. 1:54.

Awbrey, F.T., J.A. Thomas, and R.A. Kastelein. 1988. Low frequency underwater hearing sensitivity in belugas, Delphinapterus leucas. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84:2273-2275.

Abstract - The underwater hearing sensitivity of three captive belugas (Delphinapterus leucas ) was measured at octave intervals between 125 Hz and 8 kHz. The average threshold of the three animals was 65 dB re:1 mu Pa at 8 kHz, which is in excellent agreement with previously published data. Below 8 kHz, sensitivity decreased at approximately 11 dB per octave, and was 120.6 dB at 125 Hz.


Babushina, Ye S., G.L. Zaslavkii and R.A. Kastelein. 1991. Air and underwater hearing characteristics of the northern fur seal: Audiograms, frequency and differential thresholds. Biophysics 36:909-913.

Baggeroer, A., and W. Munk. 1992. The Heard Island feasibility test. Physics Today 45:22-30.

Bain, D.E., B. Kriete, and M.E. Dahleim. 1993. Hearing abilities of killer whales (Orcinus orca). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94:1829.

Baker, C.S. and L.M. Herman. 1989. Behavioral responses of summering humpback whales to wessel traffic: experimental and opportunistic observations. NPS-NR-TRS-89-01. Rep. from Kewalo Basin Mar. Mamm. Lab., Univ., Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, for U.S. Natl. Mar. Mamm. Lab., Seattle, WA. 30p.

Banner, A. 1967. Evidence of sensitivity to acoustic displacements in the lemon shark, Negraprion brevirostris (Poey). In : Cahn, P.H., ed. Lateral Line Detectors. Indiana University Press: Bloomington: p. 265-273.

Banner, A. and M. Hyatt. 1973. Effects of noise on eggs and larvae of two estuarine fishes. Trans. Amer. Fish Soc. 102:134-136.

Bauer, G.B. 1986. The behavior of humpback whales in Hawaii and modifications of behavior induced by human interventions. Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu, Dissertation.

Bauer, G.B., J.R. Mobley, and L.M. Herman. 1993. Responses of wintering humpback whales to vessel traffic. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94:1848.

Berglund, B., T. Lindvall and S. Nordin. 1990. Adverse effects of aircraft noise. Environ. Int. 16:315-338.

Bohne, B.A., J.A. Thomas, E.R. Yohe, and S.H. Stone. 1985. Examination of potential hearing damage in Weddell seals (Leptoncychotes weddelli) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Antarct. J. U.S. 20:174-176.

Bowles, A.E. and B.S. Stewart. 1980. Disturbances to the pinnipeds and birds of San Miguel Island, 1979-1980. In: J.R. Jehl, Jr., and C.F. Cooper, eds., Potential effects of space shuttle sonic booms on the biota and geology of the California Channel Islands: research reports. Center for Marine Studies, San Diego State Univ. Tech. Rep. 80-1, p. 99-137

Bowles, A.E., M. Smultea, B. Wursig, P. DeMaster and D. Palka. 1994. Relative abundance and behavior of marine mammals exposed to transmissions from the Heard Island Feasibility Test. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96:2469-2484.

Branscomb, E.S. and D. Rittschof. 1984. An investigation of low frequency sound waves as a means of inhibiting barnacle settlement. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. 79:149-154.

Abstract - Inhibition of barnacle settlement was achieved using low frequency (30 Hz) sound waves on laboratory-reared larvae of Balanus amphitrite Darwin. Less than 1% of very young cyprids (0 days old) settled in the presence of the sound waves. Cyprids caught in plankton tows responded very similarly to young laboratory-reared larvae. Although percent settlement tends to increase with older and therefore less discriminating larvae, low frequency sound reduces the percentage of metamorphosis for cyprids up to13 days old.


Brodie, P.F. 1981. Energetic and behavioral considerations with respect to marine mammals and disturbance from underwater noise. Peterson, N.M. ed. The questions of sound from icebreaker operations: proceedings of a workshop; Arctic Pilot Proj., Calgary, Alb. p. 287-290.

Buerkle, U. 1968. Relation of pure tone thresholds to background noise level in the Atlantic cod (Gabus morhua). J. Fish. Bd. Canada 25:1155-1160.

Calkins, D.G. 1983. Marine mammals of Lower Cook Inlet and the potential for impact from outer continental shelf oil and gas exploration, development, and transport. NOAA/OCSEAP, Envir. Assess. Alaskan Cont. Shelf. Final Rep. Prin. Invest. 20:171-263. NTIS PB85-201226.

Calambokidis, J. 1996. Preliminary (quick-look) analysis of aerial survey data surveys conducted through March 1996. ATOC Program Office, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA.

Cassano, E.R., A.C. Myrick, C.B. Glick, R.C. Holland, and C.E. Lennert. 1990. The use of seal bombs on dolphin in the yellowfin tuna purse-seine fishery. Admin. Rep. LJ-90-09. U.S. Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., La Jolla, CA. 31p.

Chapman, C.J. and A.D. Hawkins. 1973. Field studies on hearing in the cod Gadus morhua. L.J. Comp. Physiol. 85:147-167.

Chapman, C.J. and O. Sand. 1974. Field studies on hearing of two species of flatfish: Pleuronectes platessa (L.) Limanda (L.)( Family pleuronectidae). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 47:371-3468.

Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). 1997. Potential effects of low frequency sound on the marine environment. Data needs and research solutions. Draft Summary Report for the Scientific Working Group Meeting # 1, 9 April 1997.

Clark, C.W., and J.M. Clark. 1980. Sound playback experiments with southern right whales. Science 207:663-665.

Abstract - A variety of sound recordings were played to southern right whales. Whales approached the loudspeaker and made frequent sounds in response to recordings of other southern right whales, but swam away and made relatively few sounds in response to playbacks of water noise, 200-hz tones, and humpback whale sounds. Southern right whales can differentiate between conspecific and other sounds.


Clark, C.W. 1993. Application for permit for scientific research under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and for scientific purposes under the Endangered Species Act. Permit for Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) marine mammal research program by Scripps Institute of Oceanography, Institutes for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Acoustics Thermometry of Ocean Climate Program, La Jolla, CA.

Cohen, J. 1991. Was underwater "shot" harmful to whales? Science. 252:913-914.

Cosens, S.E. and L.P. Dueck. 1993. Icebreaker noise in Lancaster Sound, N.W.T., Canada: Implications for marine mammal behavior. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 9: 285-300.

Abstract - In 1986, we recorded the MV Arctic, CCGS des Groseilliers and MV Lady Franklin during routine icebreaking operations and travel to and from the mine at Nanisivik, Baffin Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. We found that the Arctic generated more high frequency noise than did the other vessels we recorded. Monitoring of vessel noise levels indicated that belugas and, probably, narwhals should be able to detect the high frequency components of Arctic noise at least as far as 25 to 30 km from the source. The ability of whales to detect the MV Arctic at long distances may explain why belugas and narwhals in Lancaster Sound seem to react to ships at longer distances than do other stocks of arctic whales.


Cowles, C.J. 1989. Biological models as predictive tools for assessment of potential effects of Alaska outer continental shelf oil and gas exploration. OCEANS ë89 The Global Ocean. Vol. 1: Fisheries, Global Ocean Studies, Marine Policy and Education, Oceanographic Studies. p. 307-310.

Crum, L.A., and Y. Mao. 1996. Acoustically enhanced bubble growth at low frequencies and its implications for human diver and marine mammal safety. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99:2898-2907.

Cummings, W.C., D.V. Holliday, and B.J. Lee. 1984. Potential impacts of man-made noise on ringed seals: vocalizations and reactions. Outer Cont. Shelf Environ. Assess. Program, Final Rep. Princ. Invest., NOAA, Anchorage, AK 37:95:230. 603p. OCS Study MMS 86-0021; NTIS PB87-107546

Dahlheim, M.E. and D.K. Ljunglad. 1990. Preliminary hearing study on gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in the field. In Thomas, J.A. and R.A. Kastelein, eds. Sensory abilities of cetaceans: laboratory and field evidence. Plenum Press, New York. p 335-346.

Davis, R.W., F.W. Awbrey, and T.M. Williams. 1987. Using sounds to control the movements of sea otters. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82:S99.

Dawson, S.M. 1994. The potential for reducing entanglement of dolphins and porpoise with acoustic modifications to gillnets. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 15:573-578.

Demski, L., G.W. Gerald, and A.N. Popper. 1973. Central and peripheral mechanisms in teleost sound production. American Zoologist 13:1141-1167.

Den Hartpg and Van Nierop. 1984. Committee on low- frequency sound and marine mammals ocean studies.

Department of Commerce (DOC). 1995. Small takes of marine mammals; harassment takings incidental to specified activities. Federal Register 60(104):28379-28286.

Department of Commerce (DOC). 1996. Small takes of marine mammals; harassment takings incidental to specified activities in artic waters; regulation consolidation; update of Office Management and Budget (OMB) approval numbers. Federal Register 61(70):15884-15891.

Dolphin, W.F. 1995. The envelope following response in three species of cetaceans. In Kastelein, R.A., J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nachtigal, eds. Sensory systems of aquatic m ammals. De Spill Publishers, Woerden, The Netherlands.

Dolphin, W.F. 1996. Auditory evoked responses to amplitude modulated stimuli consisting of multiple envelope components. J. Comp. Physiol. 179A:113-121.

Dolphin, W.F. 1997. Electrophysiological measures of auditory processing in odontocetes. Bioacoustics (in press).

Dolphin, W.F., W.W.L. Au, P.E. Nachtigal, and J. Pawloski. 1995. Modulation rate transfer functions to low-frequency carriers in three species of cetaceans. J. Comp. Physiol 177A:235-245.

Abstract - A temporal modulation rate transfer function (MRTF) is a quantitative description of the ability of a system to follow the temporal envelope of a stimulating waveform. In this study MRTFs were obtained from three cetacean species: the false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens; the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas; and the bottlenosed dolphin Tursiops truncatus, using auditory-evoked potentials. Steady-state electrophysiological responses were recorded noninvasively from behaving, alert animals using suction cup electrodes placed on the scalp surface. Responses were elicited using continuous two-tone (TT) and sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) stimuli. MRTFs were obtained for modulation frequencies ranging from 18-4019 Hz using carrier and primary frequencies of 500, 1000, 4000, and 10000 Hz. Scalp potentials followed the low-frequency temporal envelope of the stimulating waveform; this envelope following response (EFR) was the dependent variable in all experiments. MRTFs were generally low-pass in shape with corner frequencies between approximately 1-2 kHz.


Fay, R.R. 1969. Auditory sensitivity of goldfish within the acoustic nearfield. U.S. Naval Submarine Medical Center, Submarine Base, Groton, CT. Report No. 605. p. 1-11.

Finley, K.J., G.W. Miller, R.A. Davis, and C.R. Greene. 1990. Reactions of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) to ice-breaking ships in the Canadian High Artic. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 224:97-117.

Abstract - The responses of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas ) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros ) to ice-breaking ships in the Canadian High Arctic were studied over a 3-yr period. Belugas and narwhals exhibited very different behavioral responses to ship approaches and ice-breaking activity. Typically, belugas moved rapidly along ice edges away from approaching ships whereas narwhals showed no overt panic reaction. The "flee" response of the beluga involved large herds undertaking long dives close to or beneath the ice edge; pod integrity broke down and diving appeared asynchronous. Narwhals showed subtle responses to approaching ships; they did not form large herds, their movements were slow or they remained motionless near the ice edge, and they huddled together in pods, often engaging in physical contact. The responses of both species at unprecedented ranges may be explained in part by the fact that no similar field studies have been conducted in pristine marine environments with industrially-naïve populations of marine mammals.


Flaherty, C. 1981. Apparent effects of boat traffic on harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). p. 35 In: Abstr. 4 th bienn. conf. biol. mar. mamm., San Francisco, CA, Dec. 1981. 127p.

Fletcher, J.L. and R.G. Bunsel, editors. Effects of noise on wildlife. Academic Press, New York. 305p.

Fletcher, S., B.J. Le Boeuf, D.P. Costa, and S. Blackwell. 1996. Onboard acoustic recording from diving northern elephant seals. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100:2531- 2539.

Abstract - This study was the first phase in a long-term investigation of the importance of low-frequency sound in the aquatic life of northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. By attaching acoustic recording packages to the backs of six translocated juveniles, the aim was to determine the predominant frequencies and sound levels impinging on them, and whether they actively vocalize underwater on their return to their rookery at Ano Nuevo, California, from deep water in Monterey Bay. All packages contained a Sony digital audio tape recorder encased in an aluminum housing with an external hydrophone. Flow noise was minimized by potting the hydrophone in resin to the housing and orienting it posteriorly. The diving pattern of four seals was recorded with a separate time-depth recorder or a time-depth-velocity recorder. Good acoustic records were obtained from three seals. Flow noise was positively correlated with swim speed, but not so high as to mask most low-frequency sounds in the environment. Dominant frequencies of noise impinging on the seals were in the range 20-200 Hz. Transient signals recorded from the seals included snapping shrimp, cetacean vocalizations, boat noise, small explosive charges, and seal swim strokes, but no seal vocalizations were detected. During quiet intervals at the surface between dives, the acoustic record was dominated by respiration and signals that appeared to be heartbeats. This study demonstrates the feasibility of recording sounds from instruments attached to free-ranging seals, and in doing so, studying their behavioral and physiological response to fluctuations in ambient sounds.


Frankel, A.S., J.R. Mobley, Jr., and L.M. Herman. 1995. Estimation of auditory response thresholds in humpback whales using biologically meaningful sounds, In Kastelein, R.A., J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nachtigal, eds. Sensory systems of aquatic mammals. De Spill publishers, Woerden, The Netherlands.

Frings, H. and M. Frings. 1967. Underwater sound fields and behavior of marine invertebrates. In: Tavolga W.N. ed. Marine bio-acoustics. Oxford, U.K. Pergammon Press. p. 261-282.

Gales, R.S. 1982. Effects of noise of offshore oil and gas operations on marine mammals- an introductory assessment. NOSC TR844, vol. 2. Naval Oceans Systems Center, San Diego, CA. 300p. NTIS AD-A123699=AD-A123700.

Glass, K. 1989. Are dolphins being deafend in the Pacific? Oceanus 32:83-85.

Greene, C.R. Jr., 1991. Ambient Noise. Chapter 4, In: Effects of noise on marine mammals. Report 90-0093. Prepared by LGL Ecological Research Associates under contract No. 14-12-0001-30362 for the U.S. Department of Interior, Mineral Management Service, Herdon, VA.

Groutage, D., J. Schempp, and L. Cohen. 1994. Characterization and analysis of marine mammals sounds using time-frequency and time-proxy techniques. OCEANS 94. Proceedings, September 13-16, 1994, Brest France-- Vol. 1, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York (USA). p. I. 253-I. 258.

Hamilton, P.M. 1957. Underwater Hearing Thresholds, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 29:792794.

Harris, G.G. and W.A. van Bergeijk. 1962. Lateral-line organ response to near-field displacements of sound sources in waters. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 34:1831-1841.

Hastings, M.C., A.N. Popper, J.J. Finneran and P.J. Lanford. 1996. Effects of low-frequency underwater sound on hair cells of the inner ear and lateral line of the teleost fish Astronotus ocellatus. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99:1759-1766.

Abstract- Fish (Astronotus ocellatus, the oscar) were subject to pure tones in order to determine the effects of sound at levels typical of man-made sources on the sensory epithelia of the ear and the lateral line. Sounds varied in frequency (60 or 300 Hz), duty cycle (20% or continuous), and intensity (100, 140, or 180 dB re: mu Pa). Fish were allowed to survive for 1 or 4 days posttreatment. Tissue was then evaluated using scanning electron microscopy to assess the presence or absence of ciliary bundles on the sensory hair cells on each of the otic endorgans and the lateral line. The only damage that was observed was in four of five fish stimulated with 300-Hz continuous tones at 180 dB re: mu Pa and allowed to survive for 4 days. Damage was limited to small regions of the striola of the utricle and lagena. There was no damage in any other endorgan, and the size and location of the damage varied between specimens. No damage was observed in fish that had been allowed to survive for 1 day poststimulation, suggesting that damage may develop slowly after exposure.


Hastings, M.C. 1990. Effects of underwater sound on fish, AT&T Bell Laboratories Report 46254-900206-011M, Feb. 6. 1990.

Hasting, M.C. 1990. Harmful effects of underwater sound on fish. Presented at the 122nd meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Houston, TX. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90:2335.

Hawkins, A.D. 1986. Underwater sound and fish behaviour. The Behaviour Of Teleost Fishes. pp. 114-151.

Abstract - Communication by means of sound appears to be widespread in fish, low-frequency calls being produced in a variety of social contexts including competitive and aggressive behaviour and courtship. Fish are acutely sensitive to sounds, though their hearing abilities are confined to low frequencies. They are able to discriminate between sounds of different amplitude and frequency, and between calls that differ in their pulse patterning - an ability that seems to be particularly important in enabling them to distinguish their own calls from those of other species. Fish are also able to determine the direction and even the distance of a sound source.


Hawkins, A.D. 1978. Sound and fish. In : Proceedings of the Conference Acoustics in Fisheries, held at Faculty of Maritime and Engineering Studies, Hull College of Higher Education, Hull, England, 26th and 27th September 1978.

Abstract - The underwater sounds of fishes, their hearing abilities and mechanisms are reviewed and discussed in this article.


Hawkins, A.D. and A.A. Myrberg, Jr. 1983. Hearing of the Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar. J. Fish. Biol. 13:655-673.

Abstract - The hearing of the salmon, S. salar, was studied by means of a cardiac conditioning technique. Fish were trained to show a slowing of the heart, on hearing a sound, in anticipation of a mild electric shock applied later. The minimum sound level to which the fish would respond was determined for a range of pure tones, both in the sea, and in the laboratory. The fish responded only to low frequency tones (below 380 Hz), and particle motion, rather than sound pressure, proved to be the relevant stimulus. The sensitivity of the fish to sound was not affected by the level of sea noise under natural conditions but hearing is likely to be masked by ambient noise in a turbulent river. Sound measurements made in the River Dee, near Aberdeen, lead to the conclusion that salmon are unlikely to detect sounds originating in air, but that they are sensitive to substrate borne sounds. Compared with the carp and cod the hearing of the salmon is poor, and more like that of the perch and plaice.


Hill, S.H. 1978. A guide to the effects of underwater shock waves in arctic marine mammals and fish. Pacific Mar. Sci. Rep.78-26. Inst. Ocean Sciences, Patricia Bay, Sidney, B.C. 50p.

Jehl, J.R. and C.F. Cooper, editors. 1980. Potential effects of space shuttle sonic booms on the biota and geology of the California Channel Islands: research reports. Tech. Rep. 80-1. Rep. from Cent. Mar. Stud., San Diego State Univ. and Hubbs/ Sea World Res. Inst., San Diego, CA, for U.S. Air Force, Space Div. 246p.

Johnson, C.S. 1967. Sound detection thresholds in marine mammals. p.247-260 In:W.N. Tavolga, ed. Marine Bioacoustics Vol. 2 Pergamon Press, New York.

Johnson, S.R., J.J. Burns, C.I. Malme, and R.A. Davis. 1989. Synthesis of information on the effects of underwater noise and disturbance on major haulout concentrations of Bering Sea pinnepeds. OCS Study MMS 88-0092. Rep. from LGL Alaska Res. Assoc. Inc., Anchorage, AK, for U.S. Minerals Manage. Serv., Anchorage, AK. 267p. NTIS PB89-191373.

Kastak, D. and R.J. Schusterman. 1996. Tempory threshold shift in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100:1905-1098.

Kastelein, R.A., P. Molsterd, C.L. Ligtenberg, W.C. Verboom. 1996. Aerial hearing sensitivity tests with a male Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), in the free field and with headphones. Aquat. Mamm. 22:81-93.

Abstract- The aerial hearing of a 10-year-old male Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens was tested from 0.125 to 8 kHz, the frequency range covering the ranges of human speech, industrial noise and most walrus vocalizations. Two behavioral audiometric test methods were used in a study area with a fluctuating background noise level of 52 plus or minus 4 dB(A) re 20 mu Pa. The go/no-go paradigm was used in both tests. Test 1. Headphones were used to investigate the aerial hearing sensitivity of each ear for pure tones of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 kHz. A modification of the descending staircase psychometric technique was used (Levitt, 1970). Both ears were equally sensitive. Between 0.125 and 0.25 kHz, the detection thresholds dropped from 105 dB to 80 dB and between 0.25 and 2.0 kHz from 80 to 60 dB re 20 mu Pa. Between 2.0 kHz and 8.0 kHz the thresholds increased to around 65 dB. The hearing thresholds obtained with headphones suggest very poor hearing in this walrus compared to other tested pinnipeds. However, this does not agree with the day-to-day experiences at the Harderwijk Marine Mammal Park where many behavioral commands are given orally to the study animal. Maybe the outer ear canal was closed off by the auricular muscles due to the presence of headphones. Test 2. 'Free field' (not a true free field in the acoustical sense of the word, because the room was echoic and not sound isolated) measurements were carried out on the same walrus, in which the aerial hearing sensitivity was tested for 2 types of sound signals (frequency modulated tones and filtered band noise) with centre frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kHz. The walrus responded to signals that were 3 to 13 dB above the 1/3-octave background noise levels, which suggests that the hearing thresholds reported were masked thresholds.


Kelly, J.C. and D.R. Nelson. 1975. Hearing thresholds of the horn shark, Heterodontus fancisci. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 58:905-909.

Ketten, D.R., J. Lien, and S. Todd. 1993. Blast injury in humpback whale ears: evidence and implications. 126th meeting of Acoustic Society of America. J. Acous. Soc. Am. 94:1849-1850.

Ketten, D.R., S. Ridgway, and G. Early. 1995. Apocalyptic hearing: Aging, injury, disease, and noise in marine mammal ears. Eleventh biennial conference on the biological of marine mammals; Decemeber 14-18. Orlando, FL, 84 pp. (abstract).

Knudsen, F.R., P.S. Enger, O. Sand. 1994. Avoidance responses to low frequency sound in downstream migrating Atlantic salmon smolt, Salmo salar. J. Fish Biol. 45:227-233.

Abstract - The possibility of using intense sound as an acoustic barrier for downstream migrating smolt of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was studied by observing the reactions of smolt to 10 and 150 Hz sounds in a small river. At the observation site the river branched into a main course and a minor channel, the latter rejoining the main stream after 30 m. The sound sources were positioned at the lower end of the channel. The number of smolt re-entering the main stream at the lower end of the channel was recorded during alternating periods with and without sound. Intense 150 Hz sound had no observable effects on the smolt, even at intensities 114 dB above the hearing threshold at this frequency. At intensities above 1.0 x 10 super(-2) m/s super(2) the 10 Hz sound was an effective deterrent for the smolt, which turned and left the channel at the upstream branching point.


Lagardere, J.P. 1982. Effects of noise on growth and reproduction of Crangon crangon in rearing tanks. Mar. Biol. 71:177-185.

Abstract -Brown shrimp, C. crangon (L.), were reared in Angoulins, France from April to June 1981. Rearing in a soundproof box reproduced acoustical conditions similar to those prevailing in the shrimps' original environment. Growth and reproduction were compared to those of shrimp from the same source but reared in acoustical conditions prevailing in a thermoregulated aquarium; other experimental conditions were identical. In the aquarium, the noise-level attained 30 dB in the 25 to 400 Hz frequency range; this permanently high sound-level resulted in a significant reduction in growth and reproduction rates of the shrimp. To a lesser degree, noise also appears to increase aggression (cannibalism) and mortality rate and to decrease food uptake. These symptoms are extremely similar to those induced by adaptation to stress.


Le Boef, B.J. , and R.M. Laws. 1994. Elephant seals. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Lenhart, M.L., S. Bellmund, R.A. Byles, S.W. Harkins, and J.A. Musick. 1983. Marine turtle reception of bone-conducted sound. Virginia Inst. of Mar. Sci. and Medical College of VA.

Lettvin, J. Y., E.R. Grumberg, R.M. Rose, and G. Plotkin. 1982. Dolphins and the bends. Science 216:650-651.

LGL and Greenridge. 1986. Reactions of Beluga whales and narwhals to ship traffic and icebreaking along ice edges in the eastern Canadian High Arctic: 1982-1984. Envir. Stud. 37. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Ottawa, Ont. 301 p.

LGL and Greenridge. 1995. Acoustical effects of oil production activities on bowhead and white whales visible during spring migration near Pt. Barrow Alaska-1991 and 1994 phases: Sound propagation and whale responses to playbacks of icebreaker noise. Rep. for U.S. Minerals Management Service, Herdon VA, USA. 539p. OCS Study MMS 95-0051.

LGL Ecological Research Associates. 1991. Effects of noise on marine mammals. Tech. Report for Minerals Management Service Atlantic OCS Region, Herndon, VA. OCS Study MMS 90-0093

Ljumgbals, D.K., P.D. Scoggins and W.G. Gilmartin. 1982. Auditory thresholds of a captive eastern Pacific bottlenosed dolphin Tursiops spp. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72:1726-1729.

Malme, C.I., P.R. Miles, C.W. Clark, P. Tyack and J.E. Bird. 1983. Investigations of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum industry activities on migrating gray whale behavior . BBN Rep. 5633. Rep from Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. Cambridge, MA, for U.S. Minerals Manage. Serv., Anchorage, AK. NTIS PB-8617474.

Abstract - The report describes an experimental investigation of the behavioral response of migrating gray whales to sounds associated with oil and gas exploration and development activities. Whale activity was measured from shore during a series of double blind experiments. A track deflection program was established to test for any possible changes in such parameters as distance from shore, speed, linearity of track, orientation towards the sound source, and compass heading of each whale group. Whales exposed to tape-recorded acoustic signatures of Orca, Drilling Platform, Helicopter, and Production Platform played back through an underwater sound projector showed avoidance responses in which tracks deflected slightly away from the source of the playback stimulus. Whales exposed to Orca, Drilling Platforms, Drill Ship, Semi-submersible, and Helicopter stimuli slowed down in response to playback.


Malme, C.I., P.R. Miles, C.W. Clark, P. Tyack and J.E. Bird. 1984. Investigations of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum industry activities on migrating gray whale behavior/ Phase II: January 1984 migration. BBN Rep. 586. Rep from Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. Cambridge, MA, for U.S. Minerals Manage. Serv., Anchorage, AK. NTIS PB-86-218377.

Malme, C.I., P.R. Miles, C.W. Miller, W.J. Richardson, D.G. Roseneau, D.H. Thomson and C.R. Greene, Jr. 1989. Analysis and ranking of the acoustic disturbance potential of petroleum industry activities and other sources of noise in the environment of marine mammals in Alaska. BBN Rep.6945; OCS Study MMS 89-0006. Rep. from BBN Systems and Technol. Corp., Cambridge, MA, for U.S. Mineral Manage. Serv., Anchorage, AK. NTIS PB90-188673.

Malme, C.I., P.R. Miles, G.S. Miller, W.J. Richardson, D.G. Roseneau. 1989. Analysis and ranking of the acoustic disturbance potential of petroleum industry activities and other sources of noise in the environment of marine mammals in Alaska. OCS/MMS-89/006. 307p.

Abstract- The study compares the relative magnitudes and effects on marine mammals of noise from oil and gas industry activities with noise from other sources in Alaska, USA, outer continental shelf and coastal waters. The study procedure incorporates the receiver, source and path concepts generally used in acoustic analysis. The receiver characterization includes a review of marine mammal distribution in Alaska and a map of the distribution of each major species. Information on species sound production, hearing sensitivity (when known), and observed responses to noise sources is also included. The analysis of noise sources found in the Alaskan marine environment considers natural, industrial, transportation, and cultural sources. Acoustic transmission loss characteristics obtained from measurements and model predictions are used to estimate the effective ranges of the noise sources using available source level information.


Maniwa, Y. 1971. Effects of vessel noise in purse seining. In: Kristjonnson, H. ed., Modern fishing gear of the world. London, UK, Fishing News (Books) Ltd.

Mate, B.R. and J.T. Harvey. 1987. Acoustical deterrents in marine mammals conflicts with fisheries. Oregon State Univ. Sea Grant College Prog., Corvallis, OR. 116p. ORESU-W-86-001

Maybaum, H.L. 1989. Effects of 33 kHz sonar system on humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Hawaiian waters. EOS. 71:92.

Mobley, J.R., L.M. Herman, and A.S. Frankel. 1988. Responses of wintering humpbacks whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to playback recordings of winter and summer vocalizations and of synthetic sound. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 23:211-223.

Abstract- Three natural sounds and one synthetic sound were played back to humpback whales during their 1985 and 1986 winter residency in Hawaiian waters. The major response observed during playback was a rapid approach to the playback vessel. Whales approaching were mainly singletons and, secondly, apparent adult pairs. The approach was selective: 21.6% of targeted pods approached in response to a feeding sound recorded in summer feeding grounds in Alaska; 8.3% approached in response to social sounds recorded in the Hawaiian winter grounds in the presence of large surface-active pods; 3.4% responded to playback of winter song; and 4.1% responded to playback of synthetic sound. The different rates of response were attributed to the behavior of sexually active males seeking to affiliate with sexually mature females.


Mohl, B. 1968. Auditory sensitivity of the common seal in air and water. J. Aug. Res. 08:27-38.

Montague, W.E. and J.F. Strickland. 1961. Sensitivity of the water-immersed ear to high and low level tones. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 33:1376-1381.

Moore, P.W.B. and R.J. Schusterman. 1987. Audiometric assessment of northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 3:31-53.

Myberg, A.A. 1972. Using sound to influence the behaviour of free-ranging marine animals. In Winn,H.E. and B.L., eds. Behaviour of marine animals, vol. 2, Olla Plenum Press, New York.

Myrberg, A.A. 1978. Underwater sound- its effects on the behavior of sharks. In Hodgeson, E.S. and R.F. Mathewson eds. Sensory biology of sharks, skates and rays. Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA. p. 391-417.

Myrberg, A.A. 1978. Ocean noise and behavior of marine animals: relationships and implications. In: Fletcher, J.L. and R.G. Busnel, eds. Effects of noise on wildlife. Academic Press, New York. p. 169-208.

Myberg, A.A. 1980. Hearing in damsel fishes: an analysis of signal detection among closely related species. J. Comp. Physiol. 140B:135-144.

Abstract - Audiograms were established for 6 closely related damselfishes of the cosmopolitan genus, Eupomacentrus , from the waters of southern Florida: E. diencaeus, E. dorsopunicans, E. leucostictus, E. mellis, E. planifrons, and E. variabilis . These were then compared with a previously established audiogram for E. partitus, the final remaining congeneric found in the area. Although variation existed, remarkable similarity was found among the hearing sensitivities of all seven species. In E. dorsopunicans, sound pressure was shown to control sensitivity at frequencies above 300 Hz, while particle-motion was the relevant stimulus at 100 Hz (and probably at 50 Hz as well). Both factors appeared capable of controlling sensitivity at 200 Hz. The minimal detection level for the courtship sound in E. dorsopunicans was in accord with its audiogram.


Myrberg, A.A. 1981. Sound communication and interception in fishes. In: Tavolga, W.N., A.N. Popper, and R.R. Fay, eds. Hearing and sound communications in fishes. Springer-Verlag, New York. p. 395-425.

Abstract - Following a definition of communication, a framework is presented upon which analyses of communication could develop in the future. Application of the framework to sound communication in fish is discussed, considering signalling predators, signalling prey, signalling prospective mates, signalling companions and signalling competitors; application to sound interception is also discussed.


Myrberg, A.A., S.J. Ha, S. Walewski and J.C. Banbury. 1972. Effectiveness of acoustic signals in attracting epipelagic sharks to an underwater sound source. Bull Mar. Sci. 22:926-949.

Myrberg, A.A., C.R. Gordon, and A.P. Klimley. 1976. Attraction of free ranging sharks by low frquency sound, with comments on its biological significance. In Schuijf, A and A.D. Hawkins eds. Sound Reception in Fish. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

National Research Council. 1994. Low-frequency sound and marine mammals: current knowledge and research needs. Washington DC. 97 p.

Comment- This is an excellent source for references.


National Research Council. 1996. Marine mammals and low frequency sound: progress since 1994: An interim report. Washington DC. 26 p.

Comment- This is an excellent source for references.


Nelson, D.R. 1967. Hearing thresholds, frequency discrimination and acoustic orientation in the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris, (Poey). Bull. Mar. Sci. 17:741-768.

Nelson, D.R. and S.H. Gruber. 1963. Sharks: attraction by low frequency sounds. Science 142:975-977.

Nelson, D.R and R.H. Johnson. 1970. Acoustic studies on sharks. Rangiroa Atoll, July 1969. Tech Rpt. 2, 15 pp. ONR, No N00014-68-C-0318.

Nelson, D.R and R.H. Johnson. 1976. Some recent observations on acoustic attraction of Pacific reef sharks. In: Schuiif, A and A.D. Hawkins, eds. Sound reception in fish. Elsevier, Amsterdam. p. 229-239.

Nelson, D.R, R.H. Johnson and L.G. Waldrop. 1969. Responses in Bahamian sharks and groupers to low-frequency, pulsed sounds. Bull. So. Cal. Acad. Sci. 68:131-137.

Neproshin, A.Yu. 1978. Behavior of the Pacific mackerel, Pneumatophorus japonicus , when affected by vessel noise. J. Ichthyol. 18:695-699.

Abstract - Results are presented of over 600 experiments on the effect of ship noise on the Pacific mackerel concentrations. The pattern of changes in distances from which fish respond to an approaching vessel as related to surface water temperatures and different regimes of vessel operation is discussed.


Offutt, G.C. 1970. Acoustic stimulus perception by the American lobster (Homarus americanus) (Decapoda). Experientia 26:1276-1278.

Okapi Wildlife Associates. 1996. Acoustic deterrence of harmful marine mammal- fishery interactions: Proceeding of a workshop held March 20-22, 1996 in Seattle Washington. NOAA Tech. Mem. 70 p.

Popper, A.N. 1974. The response of the swimbladder of the goldfish (Carassius aurtus) to acoustic stimuli. J. Exp. Biol. 60:295-304.

Popper, A.N. and R.R. Fay. 1973. Sound detection and processing by teleost fishes, a critical review. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 53:1515-1529.

Reeves, R.R., R.J. Hofman, G.K. Silber, D. Wilkinson, editors. 1996. Acoustic Deterrence of harmful marine mammal- fishery interactions: Proceedings of a workshop held March 20-22, 1996I n Seattle Washington. Marine Mammal Commission, Wahington, D.C.

Renaud, D.L. and A.N. Popper. 1975. Sound localization by the bottlenosed porpoise (Tursiops truncatus). J. Exp. Biol. 63:569-585.

Richardson, W.J., B. Wusig and C.R. Greene. 1990. Reactions of bowhead whales, Balaena myusticetus, to drilling and dredging noise in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 29:135-160.

Richardson, W.J., B. Wursig and C.R. Greene. 1986. Reactions of bowhead whales, Balaena myusticetus, to seismic exploration in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79:1117-1128.

Richardson, W.J., C.R. Greene, Jr., C.I. Malme, and D.H. Rhompson. 1991. Effects of noise on marine mammals. OCS Study MMS-90-0093; LGL Rep. TA834-1. Rep. from LGL Ecol. Res. Assoc., Bryan, TX, for U.S. Minerals Manage. Serv., Atlantic OCS Reg. Herndon, VA 462 p. NTIS PB91-168914.

Richardson, W.J., C.R. Greene, Jr., C.I. Malme, and P.H. Thomson. 1995. Marine mammals and noise. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 576p

Comment- This is an excellent source for references and has several sections dealing with man-made noises such as dredging, oil and gas drilling, sonars, explosions, and transportation noise.

Ridgeway, S.H. 1997. Who are the Whales? Bioacoustics (in press).

Ridgway, S.H. , and W.W.L. AU. 1996. Dolphin hearing and echolocation: The bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. In Adelman, G. and B. Smith, eds. Encyclopedia of neuroscience, 2nd edition, Springer-Verlag, New York.

Ridgway, S.H., and D.A. Carder. 1997. Hearing deficits measured in some Tursios truncatus, and discovery of a deaf/ mute dolphin. J Acoust. Soc. Am. 101:590-594.

Abstract Eight bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus (four male, four female) were trained to respond to 100-ms tones. Three male dolphins exhibited hearing disability at four higher frequencies-70, 80, 100, and 120 kHz even at 111-135 dB re:1 mu Pa. Two females responded to all frequencies as did a male and a female. One female responded to all tones at 80 kHz and below; however, she failed to respond at 100 or 120 kHz. One young female dolphin exhibited no perception of sound to behavioral or electrophysiological tests. This young female was not only deaf, but mute. The dolphin was monitored periodically by hydrophone and daily by trainers (by ear in air) for 7 years until she was age 16. The animal never whistled or made echolocation pulses or made burst pulse sounds as other dolphins do.


Ridgway, S.H., and R. Howard. 1979. Dolphin lung collapse and intramuscular circulation during free diving: Evidence from nitrogen washout. Science 206:1182-1183.

Ridgway, S.H., and R. Howard. 1982. Dolphins and the bends. Science 216:651.

Ridgway, S.H., E.G. Wever, J.G. McCormick, J. Palin and J.H. Anderson. 1969. Hearing in the giant sea turtles. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59 Supp. 1. s46.

Sand, O. and P.S. Enger. 1973. Evidence for an auditory function of the swimbladder in the cod. J. Exp. Biol. 59:405-414.

Smith, P.F., J. Wojtowicz, and S. Carpenter. 1988. Tempory auditory threshold shifts induced by repeated ten-minite exposures to continuous tones in water. Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Groton, Connecticut, Report 1122.

Stewart, B.S. , F.T. Awbrey, and W.E. Evans. 1983. Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) responses to industrial noise in Nashagak Bay, Alaska. 1983. NOAA/OCSEAO, Envir. Asses. Alaskan Cont. Shelf, Final Rep. Prin. Invest. 43(1986):587-616. NTIS PB87-1912118.

Stewart, B.S., W.E. Evans, and F.T. Awbrey. 1982. Effects of man-made waterborne noise on behavior of Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Bristol Bay, Alaska. Hubbs/ Sea World Res. Inst. Rep. 82-145.

Suzuki,H., E. Hamada, K. Saito, Y. Maniwa, and Y. Shirai. 1980. The influence of underwater sound on marine organisms. J. Navig., 33:291-295.

Abstract -As sea traffic grows, so too does the problem of the acoustic pollution of fishing grounds. This paper describes the measurement and analysis of ship-produced underwater sounds and their effect on the behaviour of certain fishes. It would seem that their influence on marine organisms is a growing problem and should not be ignored by navigators, for the sounds produced by large or high-speed vessels, or even fishing boats, can frighten fish shoals or cause them to change their migration routes. After a series of tests to measure and analyze the underwater sound, the output of submerged loud-speakers, either at sea or in an aquarium, was adjusted to ensure that the sound intensity near the fish was at the required level and the fish behaviour was carefully observed. For these experiments a hydrophone was connected to a pre-amplifier. A signal amplified by the pre-amplifier is attenuated before being sent to the main amplifier, the sound level being read directly on an indicator using the sound analyzing character 'C'. A tape recorder registers the sound signal in a flat response from 20 to 50 Hz to within 3 dB. A tracing recorder was also sometimes used and the two methods gave almost the same results.


Swartz, R.L., and R.J. Hofman. 1991. Marine Mammal and Habitat Monitoring: Requirements, Principles, Needs, and Approaches. Report prepared for Marine Mammal Commission. NTIS PB91-215046.

Tavolga, W.N. 1967. Masked auditory thresholds in teleost fishes. In: Tavolga, W.N. ed. Marine bio-acoustics. Pergamon, Oxford, England, vol. 2, p. 233-245.

Terhune, J. 1988. Detection thresholds of a harbour seal to repeated underwater high-frequency, short-duration sinusoidal pulses. Can. J. Zool. 66:1578-1582.

Abstract- Underwater hearing thresholds of a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) were obtained from 1 to 64 kHz using sinusoidal pulses as short as 0.5 ms. The lowest threshold was 57 dB (re 1 mu Pa) at 8 kHz. Thresholds for 500- to 50-ms tones increased to about 70 dB (re 1 mu Pa) in the 1- tp 4-kHz and 32-kHz ranges and to 111 dB (re 1 mu Pa) at 64 kHz. At 50 ms duration, thresholds were from 0 to 6 dB greater than the maximum sensitivity for each frequency tested. Thus, only very brief seal vocalizations are not as audible as longer (and equally loud) underwater calls. For pulses shorter than 400 cycles, the thresholds increased linearly with the logarithm of the number of cycles, independent of frequency (4-32 kHz). The total energy of the pulses at threshold was estimated. From 4 to 32 kHz, as the pulse durations shortened, the threshold energy value decreased and then began to increase. The findings bring into question the concept that when presented with high-frequency sound, the auditory system integrates energy for a specific time period.


Terhune, J.M. 1981. Influences of loud vessel noises on marine mammal hearing and vocal communication. p. 270-286. In: N.M. Petersen (ed.), The question of sound from icebreaker operations: the proceedings of a workshop. Arctic Pilot Proj., Petro- Canada, Calgary, Alb. 350p.

Terhune, J.M. and K. Roland. 1975. Underwater hearing sensitivity of two ringed seals (pusa hispida). Can. J. Zool. 53:227-231.

Todd, S., P. Stevick, J. Lien, F. Marques and D. Ketten. 1996. Behavioural effects of exposure to underwater explosions in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Can J. Zool./Rev. Can. Zool. 74:1661-1672.

Abstract- Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) entrapment in nets is a common phenomenon in Newfoundland. In 1991-1992, unusually high entrapment rates were recorded in Trinity Bay on the northeast coast of Newfoundland. The majority of cases occurred in the southern portion of the bay close to Mosquito Cove, a site associated with construction operations (including explosions and drilling) that presumably modified the underwater acoustic environment of lower Trinity Bay. This study reports the findings of the resulting assessment conducted in June 1992 on the impact the industrial activity on humpback whales foraging in the area. Although explosions were characterized by high-energy signatures with principal energies under 1 kHz, humpback whales showed little behavioural reaction to the detonations in terms of decreased residency, overall movements, or general behaviour. However, it appears that the increased entrapment rate may have been influenced by the long-term effects of exposure to deleterious levels of sound.


Tsuchiya, A., Y. Ohta, M.Nishimura and C. Miyazaki. 1981. Correlation analysis of man-made underwater sound and fish behavior. J. Fac. Mar. Sci. Technol. Tokia Univ. 14:325-341.

Abstract - A study was carried out on the method of system analysis which will be used for the assessment of the influence of the man-made sound on fish behavior in coastal water. The quantitative expression of fish response against sound principally could be obtained by the results of correlation between sound and variable of fish behavior. According to this concept, the acoustic and fish behavior measurement systems were arranged in the field. The obtained time series data were analyzed by correlation technique. Results show that the average response time of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) was about 0.4 to 1.4 seconds, and for gray mullet was about 3 seconds, under some limitation in observation space. Therefore, the response of fish against sound could be expressed quantitatively.


Tyack, P. 1989. Reaction of bottlenosed dolphins and migrating gray whales to experimental playback of low frequency man-made noise. Presentation to Acous. Soc. Am 126th meeting, October 3-4 1993, Denver, CO.

Tyack, P., C.I. Malme, R.W. Pyle, P. Miles, C. Clark, and J.E. Bird. 1991. Reactions of migrating gray whales (Eschrictius robustus) to industrial noise. Unpublished Report.

Tyack, P., W.A. Watkins, and K.M. Frinstrup. 1993. Marine mammals, ocean acoustics and the current regulatory environment. Unpl. report Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. #8134.

Wartzok, D., W.A. Watkins, B. Wursig and C.I. Malme. 1989. Movements and behaviors of bowhead whales in response to repeated exposures to noises associated with industrial activities in the Beaufort Sea. Rep. from Purdue Univ., Fort Wayne, IN, for Amoco Production Co., Anchorage, AK. 228pp.

Watkins, W.A. 1986. Whale reactions to human activities in Cape Cod waters. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 2:251-263.

Abstract - A review of whale observations of more than 25 years indicated that each of the species commonly observed within 35 km of Cape Cod reacted differently to stimuli from human activities, and that these responses have gradually changed with time. These reactions appeared to result mostly from three types of stimuli: primarily underwater sound, then light reflectivity, and tactile sensation. The whale reactions were related to their assessment of the stimuli as attractive, uninteresting or disturbing, their assessment of the movements of the sources of the stimuli relative to their own positions, and their assessment of the occurrence of stimuli as expected or unexpected. Whale reactions were modified by their previous experience and current activity.


Watkins, W.A. and D. Wartzok. 1985. Sensory biophysics of marine mammals. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 1:219-260.

Woolley, B.L. and W.T. Ellison. 1993. Mechanoreception and reaction in fish: a preliminary literature inquiry into underwater sound levels that are acceptable to fish. Report to Director, General Underwater Weapons (Naval) UW142.

Yan, H.Y. and A.N. Popper. 1992. Auditory sensitivity of the cichild fish (Astronotus ocele) (Cuvier). J. Comp. Physiol. 171A:105-117.

Yelverton, J.T., D.R. Richmond, E.R. Fletcher, and R. K. Jones. 1973. Safe distances from underwater explosions for mammals and birds. Rep. DNA 3114T from Lovelace Foundation for Medical Educ. and Res., Albuquerque, NM, for Defense Nuclear Agency, Washington, DC. 67p.

Cite as: Jacobi, M. 1998. Annotated Bibliography: Human-Made Sound Impacts on Marine Organisms. Final Report to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Technical Report 1998-01.

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