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Sanctuary Currents 2006
Marine Protected Areas: New Strategies for Healthy Oceans

General Info & Program | Ricketts Lecture | MBNMS Awards | Exhibitors
Poster Abstracts & Awards | 2006 Symposium Poster (PDF)

Poster Session: Abstracts & Awards


Poster Awards

The MBNMS presents awards for outstanding research posters presented at the MBNMS Sanctuary Currents Symposium. The judges determine the specific kinds of awards to present each year based on the posters presented at the Symposium.

Past Research Poster Award Winners

2006 Best Graduate Student Poster


Wertz, Lisa A.


Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, CA

Fishes in the Diet of Brandt's Cormorants (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) During the Nonbreeding Season in Moss Landing, CA

2006 Best Undergraduate Student Poster


Atwal, Munroop (Roopi) and Christina Mogren


Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Marine Reserves & Sustainable Harvest: The Solutions to the Marine Biodiversity Crisis

2006 Best High School Student Poster


Beard, Jon and Melanie Swan


San Lorenzo Valley High School, Watershed Academy, Felton CA

San Lorenzo River - How Does Water Temperature Affect Salmonid Growth?

Poster Session Abstracts

Abramson, Rachel L. and Nick Coleman

San Lorenzo Valley High School, Watershed Academy, Felton CA

Fecal Coliform Monitoring in the San Lorenzo Valley

Our goal is to test for fecal coliform in local waters in Santa Cruz county, CA. An investigative question is: Will fecal coliform be found in different bodies of water? We hypothesize that fecal coliform will exist near pollution sources, such as equestrian facilities. We retrieve sample water from our sites and test it using membrane filtration procedure. Results from our project will give us important evidence on our counties water bodies. Through this project we will obtain a better understanding of fecal coliform in our local water.

Arnot-Copenhaver, Athena and Shannon Cosentino-Roush

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

The Davidson Seamount: Your Underwater Backyard and the Need to Protect It

People come from all corners of the earth to experience the wonder and beauty of the Monterey Bay. The Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary enables the preservation of this beauty for all to enjoy. However, not every environmental gem has such recognition and protection; one such area lacking this is the Davidson Seamount. The Davidson Seamount, an underwater mountain located 120 kilometers southwest of Monterey Bay, is a biodiversity hotspot, home to species ranging from mushroom corals to the leatherback sea turtle and the sperm whale. Davidson also has many important qualities that often go unrecognized by many. The strong currents that surround the mount produce localized upwellings that provide animals with a constant supply of nutrient rich food. This allows for the cohabitation of unique species that usually do not live in the same area. The proximity to commercial fisheries and fishing ports threatens the vitality of this unique ecosystem. We are currently standing at a cross-roads between protection and degradation where our decisions and actions have the power to determine the future of the seamount. We must recognize the importance of biodiversity hot spots such as the Davidson Seamount and realize that they, just like old growth forests and wetlands, need protection. As human beings we have a responsibility to act as stewards of the ocean, both coastal and deep-water. By extending the boundaries of the MBNMS, we would be one step closer in fulfilling our role to preserve the wonder and beauty of a great natural phenomenon.

Atwal, Munroop (Roopi) and Christina Mogren

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Marine Reserves & Sustainable Harvest: The Solutions to the Marine Biodiversity Crisis

Although the prosperity of humankind depends directly on the fate of the rest of the natural world, our uncouth consumerism and overexploitation of fishery resources is depleting global biodiversity. Collapse of ocean ecosystems will prove detrimental to life all over the planet as all life is interconnected in a larger flow of biological energy. The Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary exemplifies the biodiversity present in marine ecosystems around the world. Biodiversity allows the environment to biologically adapt to changing conditions; consequently, without biodiversity, natural selection would be hindered, making adaptation impossible. Our ignorant consumerism further leads to ethical questions regarding stewardship of land and resources: Who in fact has the responsibility of conserving the limited resources available to us? Increased anthropocentric actions threaten to upset the biological balance so critical to our own survival. To curb this imminent problem, setting aside more protected areas to allow for fish population recovery is crucial. Rebounding in marine sanctuaries will benefit ocean biodiversity as well as local fishing industries. Regardless of size and significance, all organisms serve a specific function within the circle of life. As concerned citizens, we ought to honor precious resources rather than deplete them. Because the fate of humankind depends directly on the welfare of the rest of the planet, society has a moral obligation to preserve and sustainably harvest resources. Through stanch support for increasing marine protected areas, we will alleviate the biodiversity crisis and better society.

Baskett, Marissa L.(1), Mary Yoklavich (2), and Milton Love (3)

1. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
2. NOAA NMFS SWFSC Fisheries Ecology Division, Santa Cruz, CA
3. University of California, Santa Barbara Marine Science Institute, Santa Barbara, CA

Predation, Competition and the Recovery of Overexploited Fish Stocks in Marine Reserves

The recovery of previously dominant but currently overfished species is necessary to achieve marine reservesí goal of protecting ecosystem structure and function. Community interactions alter the management actions necessary to recover overfished species using marine reserves. For example, in communities where a larger species preys on their juveniles' competitors, overfishing of the larger species may cause prey population expansion; subsequent increased competition for the juveniles of the overfished species may impede its recovery within reserves. We explore the implications of such community interactions for reserve design with a model of a subtidal rockfish (genus Sebastes) system from the Northeast Pacific Ocean within a no-take reserve. Ignoring community interactions, the model predicts that a reserve large enough for internal recruitment to counterbalance mortality will allow recovery of the overfished species. However, after incorporating community interactions, the model predicts that two alternative stable states exist: one where the overfished species dominates and one where the prey dominates. In the community model, the ability of an overfished system to recover to the equilibrium where the overfished species dominates after reserve establishment depends on the initial densities of both species, and a larger reserve is required for recovery to be possible.

Beard, Jon and Melanie Swan

San Lorenzo Valley High School, Watershed Academy, Felton CA

San Lorenzo River - How Does Water Temperature Affect Salmonid Growth?

The goal of this project was to collect sufficient data to relate water temperature to salmonid development in the San Lorenzo River. We have retrieved temperature data along the river and plan to use data containing fish counts from previous studies. Our hypothesis is that salmonids will have a greater median size at sites with relatively warmer water. Each species of salmon requires a specific range in temperature for optimum growth. Although most salmonids generally prefer colder waters, over time they have a tendency to adapt to their environment, as they have done in the relatively warm San Lorenzo River. Through our experiment, we will look for their optimum temperature for development. To monitor these temperatures, we launched HOBO devices at twenty sites along the river. (HOBOs are probes that allow for continuous monitoring of a certain factor. The ones we used took the temperature of the water every thirty minutes.) We started collecting temperature data June of 2005 and plan to continue through January of 2006. We will compare these numbers with historical fish counts provided by our mentor.

Bonfante, Gina, Paul G. Peabody, and Jessica Davison

San Lorenzo Valley High School, Watershed Academy, Felton CA

Monitoring Sand Crab Distribution at Seabright State Beach

We are sampling Seabright State Beach in Santa Cruz County to determine sandcrab distribution/population/density. We hypothesize that there will be a greater sandcrab distribution in the spring when sandcrabs reproduce. We set up a standard 50 meter transect parallel to water and set up three random 10 m transects perpendicular to our 50 m tape. We collect 10 random sand crab samples at each transect. For each collected crab, we determine sex and measure size with calipers. We have not found any sand crabs that were larger than 16mm between (dates of study), which has limited our results.

Calderon, Sandra and Lucia Grande Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Extending Marine Sanctuaries

We need to expand the size of marine protected areas along the California Pacific Coast. It is important that ecosystems have large population sizes to boost species abundance, size and reproduction. We need to protect larger areas and thus larger species populations to help ensure that species have substantial genetic diversity with which to battle natural and unnatural forces. Marine reserves provide protection and recovery for many threatened and endangered species caused by local and global human destruction. We should be conscious for the well being of creatures that live in the oceans we take from. We need to be stewards, not dominion dominators, over the oceans. The oceans exist for everyone to share and protect. When we are destructive and make decisions that harmfully affect the future condition of the oceans, we are stealing the wealth of the oceans for future generations to enjoy. We have the power and moral responsibility to improve the state of the oceans through ethically minded sanctuaries. Lawmakers have a responsibility to present, and future, society to provide improved protection and regulation for natural habitats. Marine sanctuaries help protect delicate ecosystems that provide homes for millions of organisms and educate the public about harmful human practices such as over fishing and oil spills. By extending marine sanctuaries statewide, the benefits that sanctuaries provide can be seen on a larger scale.

Campbell, Lindsay and Carolina Morones

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Stewards of the Earth: Rebuilding Estuaries

We propose to expand the protection of estuaries and wetlands using the Elkhorn Slough as an example of agriculturalist and conservationist jointly at work to protect it from further erosion and damage. The Elkhorn Slough, located in the Monterey Bay, is home to over 80 species of fish and 250 species of birds, including the endangered California brown pelican, California least tern, Santa Cruz long-toed salamander, southern sea otter, and American peregrine falcon. Both agriculturalists and conservationists have successfully partnered in the effort to save the Elkhorn's plant and animal life. This conservation project is a model of human beings taking the responsibility as stewards of the earth and working together for both anthropocentric and bioocentric harmony. Furthermore, the agriculturalist has the moral responsibility to take care and protect wetlands using new technology to prevent sedimentation, through natural methods, which further helps protect unique and diverse life from ultimate destruction. By emphasizing this project we would like to enlighten others to pursue a spiritual connection to the environment in order to maintain Gods creation.

Canny, Dave (1), Kelly Chapin (1), Charles Wahle (1), Monica Diaz (1), Rikki Dunsmore (1), Lisa Wooninck (1,2)

1. MPA Science Institute, NOAA National Marine Protected Areas Center, Monterey, CA
2. NOAA Fisheries Lab, Santa Cruz, CA

De Facto MPAs of the United States

While much attention has focused recently on use restrictions in marine protected areas (MPAs), little is known about the extent or potential impacts - both ecological and socioeconomic - of areas closed for reasons other than conservation. These de facto MPAs include safety and security zones, and other restricted areas. As part of a national assessment of place-based marine conservation priorities and to further understand human uses of marine areas, NOAA's National MPA Center has inventoried, classified and analyzed 1,235 federal de facto MPAs in U.S. waters. Most de facto MPAs, such as vessel traffic zones, allow access but specify how certain uses must be conducted. Fewer than half limit access or restrict specific activities. Interestingly, access is prohibited and restrictions enforced in fewer than one third of these sites, and often for only part of the year. Although often equated with marine reserves, the realized conservation value of these restricted sites may vary widely depending on their location, the duration of their access restrictions, and their use by the managing agency. The evaluation of de facto MPAs has important implications for comprehensive marine zoning and ecosystem-based management.

Chapman, Silas and Peter Thamer

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Sustainable Fishing to Promote Biodiversity

Our poster will focus on the significant impact the fishing industry is making through over fishing and its ignorance to ecosystems' susceptibility to damage and their narrow focus on short term economics. While certainly there is more to this issue than science and economics, the overall goal is to use new areas of dialogue to increase humanitiesí awareness and in doing so promote a lasting symbiotic relationship between nature and humanity. The fishing industry supports families and the economy, its infrastructure creates a positive impact on society, as well as providing a valuable source of food. Over fishing may have short term economic benefits for the fishing market, however its long term effects can lead to the extinction of many fish and marine species which not only takes away the food source, but is detrimental to the earthís biodiversity and sustainability. It is stated in the book of Genesis, that when God created everything he saw it and said it was good, therefore from a religious perspective, to deny the world the biodiversity that allows it to function and evolve is desecrating gods beautiful work. Science can observe and record facts about the natural world, but often when the data is finally released, too much damage has already occurred for most preventative action to be of any use, thus, we need to address the problem while we still have time to prevent it rather than salvaging the consequences.

Cheung, Itchung and Mary Silver

Ocean Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA

Domoic Acid Contamination of Two Rock Crab Species, Cancer antennarius and Cancer productus in Monterey Bay

Brown and red rock crabs, Cancer antennarius and Cancer productus, respectively, comprise a portion of the crab fishery on the west coast and have been found to contain the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA). The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the levels of DA in raw crab hepatopancreas (HP); (2) to determine the animal vector of DA for crabs; and (3) to determine whether the toxin present in the crabs correlates with its presence in toxic algal populations in waters in Monterey Bay.

We report significant DA accumulation in C. antennarius and C. productus during periods when toxic phytoplankton, Pseudo-nitzschia australis and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries were absent from the water column. The highest concentration of DA found in rock crabs was 372 ppm at the Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf and 246 ppm near the mouth of Elkhorn Slough. In Elkhorn Slough, DA concentrations in C. antennarius and C. productus did not correlate with concentrations of particulate DA in the water nor with the abundance of toxic P. australis and P. multiseries cells in the water. Raw hepatopancreas of C. antennarius and C. productus tested using HPLC-DAD contained toxin levels exceeding the U.S. FDA regulated 30 ppm suggesting rock crabs, which contribute to the California commercial and sport crab fishery, may be a potential vector of Domoic Acid Poisoning to higher trophic levels in the bay and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) toxins to human consumers.

Condit, Richard (1), Burney J. Le Boeuf (2), Patricia Morris (2)

1. National Center for Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, CA
2. University of California, Santa Cruz, CA

Building a database covering 40 years of elephant seal population monitoring at Ano Nuevo, Monterey Bay Sanctuary

Our research group began routine censuses and tagging of elephant seals at Ano Nuevo in 1968. Old records in notebooks and other field forms have been merged with more recent data into a large database covering over 500,000 pinnipeds censuses, 25,000 tagged animals, and 82,000 resightings of those tags. Data are on a central server, entered by field workers at UC Santa Cruz. Recent censuses and the complete tagging record are available to the public, and the resights will be made public within 5 years. The Monterey Bay Sanctuary web site is mirroring the tagging record, and is working to include other tagging programs in the sanctuary. Highlights of the census data show the colonization, growth, and stabilization of the population from 1961-1995; since 1995, the colony has not grown. Highlights from the tag resight program include records of breeding in several 20-year old females.

Cruz-Hernandez, Monica and Alex Hazlehurst

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Fish Food For Thought: We All Have a Choice

A critical issue in marine conservation is overharvesting threatened populations of marine life. It is known that 28% of annual catch is tossed due to the fact that it is not the preferred catch. As a result many programs have been developed to promote awareness of such issues. There has been legislation which has created regulations on actual fisheries and fishing practices in general. Furthermore in regards to us, the consumers, organizations have developed a sustainable food agenda. The awareness of this issue is important because it is our responsibility as caretakers of our resources to be vigilant of overconsumption. This is particularly true when it comes to specific species depletion that may play important roles in the overall health of globally interconnected ecosystems such as the oceans. Yet, despite the actions which have been made within the seafood industry, as well as the attention that has been brought to the consumers with the resources to practice sustainable food consumption, the general public still remains uninformed. The issue remains as to who is informed and why. It is important to develop strategies that will engage all consumers, not just the wealthy who have access or those individuals interested in environmental protection and already aware. Marine life remains our main source of animal harvest and as stewards of our earth; it is of dire importance that all of society participate in its regulation.

DeVogelaere, Andrew P., Erica J. Burton, and Richard H. McGonigal

Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Monterey, CA

Protecting deep-sea corals by including Davidson Seamount in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

There are 20 documented deep-sea coral taxa on the Davidson Seamount. The distribution of these corals was characterized during a cruise in 2002, and public interest in the seamount has been growing since then. Interesting science and high quality images from the cruise generated an award-winning interactive CD, extensive print and television media coverage, two web sites, an agency promotional poster, numerous public presentations, as well as peer-reviewed publications. As a result, the potential for protecting Davidson Seamount through sanctuary designation arose in the management plan review process for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). After receiving input from a focus group of stakeholders and experts, the MBNMS Advisory Council voted to pursue inclusion of the Davidson Seamount in the MBNMS. Sanctuary status would increase national opportunities for education on deep-sea corals and limit extraction of corals from the Davidson Seamount. The potential regulations to achieve this have been presented to other public agencies for consultation, and NOAA's Pacific Fishery Management Council supported protection of the seamount habitats though inclusion in the MBNMS. There continue to be discussions on which branch of NOAA would best be suited for regulating fisheries that might impact these corals. The draft MBNMS Management Plan and supporting Environmental Impact Statement is due for public comment in the spring of 2006 with a final determination scheduled for winter 2006. Consultation by scientists has been critical throughout this process, and will be described with an update on the sanctuary designation status for Davidson Seamount.

Drake, Patrick T., Jamie Grover, Randolph Skrovan, and Mark Carr

University of California, Santa Cruz, CA

Central California Near-shore Ocean Observing

Ocean scientists and resource managers now recognize the need for sustained and extensive ocean-observing. Comprehensive environmental measurements both document changes to marine ecosystems and provide insights into the physical processes driving much of the variability. In an effort to expand and better-coordinate ocean observing in central California, the Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO) at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has teamed-up with the National Marine Sanctuary Program and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The new partnership has expanded PISCO's near-shore temperature observations to include 11 new sites in the Monterey Bay sanctuary and three sites in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. The data will be available on-line to the public through SIMoN, the Monterey Bay sanctuaryís Website. The information will help scientists and managers understand a variety of environmental phenomena, such as El Niño, global warming, or the unusually warm ocean temperatures experienced during the spring of 2005 along the central California coast. Last yearís warm temperatures were the apparent cause of the lack of recruitment of several species of juvenile rockfish within the central coastís kelp forests.

Falvey, Sean and Amanda Poulsen

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Connecting the ocean and the spiritual

Since man took its first steps on earth, he has done nothing to improve the environment, only destroy it. We have used up water, killed off species, polluted water, etc. Only recently have we started to protect these valuable natural resources that we so often take for granted. The MBNMS has just begun to care for the most diverse marine reserve in the United States. With the further education and awareness of the public, we hope to engage the community in the importance of this environmentís biodiversity. A bridge that we hope to unveil is that strong connection between God's Word and creation. We would like to show that God intended for man to be stewards of the environment, not just a benefactor of it. Interested viewers of our poster will walk away with a sense of clarity and connection with the environment. Many people find it hard to connect something so physical to something so spiritual and we intend to make that connection apparent, therefore reaching out to the religious community on behalf of the environment. The results of our research, however general, will have a positive effect and with time will show to be an encouraging change in the way the religious community views the environment.

Fischer, Sarah, Rikki Grober-Dunsmore, Kelly Chapin, Brian Jordan, Bryan Oles, and Charles Wahle

NOAA National Marine Protected Areas Center, Monterey, CA

Marine Protected Area Science, Assessment and Analysis: A Coordinated Effort on the US Pacific Coast

The National Marine Protected Areas Center, a partnership between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Department of Interior, is charged with developing a national system of MPAs as outlined by Executive Order 13158. The Pacific coast of United States is at the forefront of federal and state MPA activity conducting vigorous natural and social science with a growing interest in place-based management of marine ecosystems. Consequently, the MPA Center is launching a pilot of the national system on the west coast, which will serve as a foundation for developing the national system of MPAs. The fundamental goal of the West Coast pilot is to facilitate and catalyze the effective use of MPAs as an ecosystem management tool to conserve and protect important marine areas and resources, and to inform the development of a regionally-based national system of MPAs. The pilot is expected to result in: an ongoing regional forum for west coast state, federal and tribal MPA programs to efficiently coordinate their management of existing MPAs and collaboratively plan future efforts; and a suite of tools, methods and information for regional MPA planning and adaptive management. This poster will describe the parallel tracks science, assessment, and analysis, pursued in conjunction with extensive consultation, collaboration, and coordination among stakeholders and agencies, which the MPA Center is undertaking.

Freiwald, Jan

University of California Santa Cruz, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Santa Cruz, CA

High-resolution, Long-term Study of Kelp Greenling Habitat Use and Movement Ranges

Movement is an important aspect of fish biology. It provides the means of exploiting resources in a heterogeneous environment, spatial escape from harsh environmental conditions and social interactions. Movement of individuals is a key demographic process that contributes to the size of a local population, and modifies the distribution of the population with respect to spatially varying resources.

A review of the literature on West Coast reef fish movement has shown that many species exhibit movement on small geographic scales from meters to a few kilometers. I am using an acoustic tracking system, to investigate the role that the size, gender and reproductive state of individuals play in determining movement ranges and habitat use. For this purpose, I am studying the movement of kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus) a common kelp forest species along the Central California Coast. Using acoustic tags combined with an automated tracking system allows me to follow individuals' movements over long time scales (years) with high spatial resolution (meters). Overlaying the movement behavior with biological and physical habitat factors will help us to further the understanding of how movement of individuals structure populations in space and time, with respect to their habitat. This knowledge will inform resource management, especially the design of MPAs, because the movement rates and distances of species targeted for protection will influence the ultimate size and shape of those areas.

Freund, E.V. (1), S. T. Lindley (1) and S. J. Bograd (2)

1. Fisheries Ecology Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries Service
2. Environmental Research Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries Service

Using electronic tags to identify habitat hotspots at multiple scales

The evolution of electronic tags has advanced the science of animal tracking in recent years. Scientists are now discovering specific details of how animals utilize habitats, conduct migrations and react to variable environmental conditions. Spatial scales of these studies range from the whole Pacific basin to the small estuaries along our coast. NOAA Fisheries, in conjunction with numerous collaborators, uses a range of electronic tags from the very simple to the most advanced satellite tags. Simple temperature loggers, that log only temperature and time, were used to track juvenile steelhead in Scott creek lagoon to study temperature preferences as environmental conditions changed across the seasons. Acoustic tags, with fixed receiver arrays, and pop-off satellite (PSAT) tags were used to learn about green sturgeon migrations along the California coast up to British Columbia. As part of the Tagging of Pacific Pelagics program, multiple types of archival and satellite tags have revealed details of the vast migrations of bluefin tunas, elephant seals, and 19 other apex marine predators, along with high-resolution information on ocean properties. Data gathered using electronic tags allow us to identify regions and habitats that are essential for species survival. A common theme of our results is that electronic tags reveal that the behavior of the study animals is usually much more complex and variable than was assumed before the studies were conducted. These data have important implications for management and conservation, and contribute to our overall understanding of species interactions in their marine and aquatic environments.

Grimes, Churchill

NOAA Fisheries Lab, Santa Cruz, CA

PaCOOS: The Pacific Coast Ocean Observing System

Recognizing the need to develop an ocean observing system for the entire California Current, NOAA and its partners are establishing PaCOOS as the west coast observing "backbone" for the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). The observing system is being designed to eventually provide the oceanographic information needs for multiple users. The first priority is to improve resource surveys and fish stock assessments through incorporation of climate and ecosystem observations into forecasts of fisheries and protected resources. NOAA/NMFS is also interested in the ecosystem consequences of fishery removals, and effects of environmental variability. The geographic focus of PaCOOS is the California Current and includes the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, as well as international links to portions of Canada and Mexico. PaCOOS will focus on an expanded list of sentinel species and habitats, collect a comprehensive suite of environmental and ecosystem measurements on existing CalCOFI and other NMFS resource surveys, extend existing CalCOFI surveys to other regions of the California Current, modernize and enhance fishery dependent data collection and add new modeling and data management components. Examples of progress to date on the ecological observing portion includes: establishment of a distributed data management system consistent with the IOOS specifications on existing CalCOFI and benthic habitat data; expansion of quarterly PaCOOS/CalCOFI surveys to central California, Washington and Oregon; creation of a cooperative research unit at Humboldt State University for conducting surveys off northern California; expansion of juvenile groundfish surveys; collection of additional environmental measurements on existing resource surveys; and establishment of a governing board consisting of representation from IOOS regional associations (CeNCOOS, NANOOS, etc.) and state and federal partner institutions (NOAA, USGS, USFWS, universities, state resource agencies, etc.).

Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki (1), Lisa Wooninck (1,2), Charles Wahle (1)

1. National Marine Protected Areas Center, Science Institute, Monterey and Santa Cruz, CA
2. NOAA Fisheries Lab, Santa Cruz, CA

Benthic-pelagic Linkages in Marine Ecosystems and their Relevance to Vertical Zoning in Marine Protected Areas

MPA design requires a science-based determination of which extractive activities (e.g., fishing) must be restricted or prohibited to achieve a site's conservation goals. Recent designations have raised the issue of whether every MPA must be 'no take', or whether some recreational fishing for pelagic species could be compatible with sites focused primarily on conserving benthic communities. This management approach, termed 'vertical zoning', requires an understanding of the nature, direction, strength and predictability of ecological coupling between pelagic and benthic assemblages, and of the potential effects of pelagic fishing on benthic communities. To this end, NOAA's MPA Science Institute convened an expert workshop of fisheries biologists, ecologists and recreational fishermen in November 2005. These experts summarized broad patterns of benthic-pelagic linkages in U.S. ecosystems, e.g. by depth, habitat, mobility guild, and identified general ecological conditions under which considering vertical zoning in benthic-focused MPAs might be: (i) inappropriate due to strong benthic-pelagic coupling, e.g. nearshore habitats, coastal pelagic species, sea mounts, and spawning areas; (ii) potentially appropriate due to weak coupling, e.g. offshore, oceanic pelagic species; or (iii) worthy of further study due to complex, indirect, or variable benthic-pelagic coupling. Rules of thumb for applying vertical zoning within MPAs, pertaining to depth and the predictability of pelagic species forming aggregations, are proposed.

Hart, Nicole, Hannah M. Pfister, and H. Purchase

San Lorenzo Valley High School, Watershed Academy, Felton CA

Monitoring the Anemone Plot at Davenport Landing, CA

The goal of our study is to monitor the population dynamics of anemones at Davenport Landing Beach through observing the abiotic and biotic factors that affect these species. Anemones, Sunburst: Anthropleura sola, Giant Green: Anthropleura xanthogrammica, and Aggregating: Anthropleura elegantissima, are our main subjects of study. Using a 15 by 15 meter plot established previously by John Pearse. We randomly put a 1 M quadrat down three to six times and count numbers of species focusing on anemones. We monitor several times a month and take water temperature readings. We also hope to see how other species of invertebrates or algae influence the presence or absence of anemones. Our research has yet to be completed, but our preliminary results indicate that during the winter season there is a decrease in number of the anemones, such as Anthropleura sola and Anthropleura xanthogrammica and still an abundance of the Anthropleura elegantissima. We hypothesize that the anemones populations tend to increase in the summer due to upwelling increasing general productivity.

Heilman, Jeff and Chris Nguyen

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Technology is Dead: a Critique of the American Blind Faith in Technology

We intend to investigate the Capitalist Secular faith in technology- or the belief that technology is the worldís omnibenevolent and omnipotent savior. Instead of facing, dealing, and reflecting on our worldís ecological degradation most people believe that some unforseen technological innovation will rescue us. Our poster intends to highlight the fallacy in this belief pointing to the destruction that technology has caused to the earthís environments and at the same time reaffirm a deeper respect for nature having intrinsic value in itself. We plan to avoid depicting charismatic megafuana because we wish to inspire a deeper and more profound understanding of our earthís amazing ecosystems particularly in MPAs. We believe that Marine Protected Areas are a unique chance to give the public authentic exposure to a natural and untainted ecosystem.

Henkel, Laird

H.T. Harvey & Associates Ecological Consultants, San Jose, CA

Identification of Hotspots for Marine Birds and Mammals in Nearshore Waters of Monterey Bay

Knowledge of the geographic distribution of marine birds and mammals is required before management plans can be developed to protect them. Specifically, information on hotspots (areas used with great regularity or by large concentrations of animals) is important for the development of marine reserve designs for these highly mobile species. I used data from 34 strip transect surveys conducted between February 1999 and March 2001 in nearshore waters of Monterey Bay to assess areas that were used with regularity by birds and mammals. I analyzed the distribution of the eight most abundant bird species and the three most abundant mammal species, including three species listed as threatened or endangered under the Federal Endangered Species Act: the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) and sea otter (Enhydra lutris). I calculated the number of times each of 47 one-km transect segments were occupied by a given species, and used a randomization test to determine at what level these blocks were occupied more or less often than predicted based on chance. Hotspots and ìcold spotsî varied among species; only eight segments were hotspots for more than one species. These data suggest that marine reserve design may vary considerably depending on the taxa of interest. This method could be applied to a wide variety of taxa and should be considered in the development of marine reserves.

Karr, Kendra (1), Mike Beck (2), and Mark Carr (1)

1. University of California, Santa Cruz, CA
2. The Nature Conservancy, Santa Cruz, CA

Conservation Leasing and Ownership of Marine Rights: Leasing Kelp Beds to Examine the Nursery Role of the Macrocystis Canopy

It has been assumed that strategies for marine conservation must be substantially different than those for terrestrial conservation, in part because it is not possible to "buy the bottom" of the publicly owned oceans. This is an unfortunate misconception. There are significant submerged lands available for lease and ownership in the USA for a diverse array of ecosystems. With this in mind, The Nature Conservancy has explored the leasing and ownership of submerged lands as a tool for marine conservation and examined some of the benefits, considerations and strategies for the conservation and restoration of these lands. To examine the concept in depth, The Nature Conservancy, PISCO and ISP Alginates have developed a partnership to examine how kelp canopy loss may affect biodiversity within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). The Nature Conservancy is leasing over 1,700 acres of Californiaís kelp forests within the MBNMS; these leased beds will be monitored over 3 years to assess the biodiversity supported by kelp canopy habitats, and the potential impacts of canopy removal on that diversity. After an initial 3-month investigation period, surveys have demonstrated a significant decrease in the numbers of settled and newly settling juvenile rockfish and invertebrates after kelp canopy removal. It is our hope that the study of kelp beds as nurseries for juvenile rockfish and invertebrates may illuminate some of the key factors that control the diversity of these nearshore species and suggest best management practices.

Kerkering, Heather

Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System (CeNCOOS), Moss Landing, CA

Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System: Coordinating Research for Better Management

The Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System (CeNCOOS) is one of eleven regional systems developing as part of the national ocean observing system, the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). The goal is to coordinate the development of an ocean observing system from Point Conception to the California-Oregon border by providing data and data products to a diversity of end users on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Working as a synergistic collaboration of approximately 55 academic/research institutions, federal, state and local agencies, private corporations, and non-government groups, CeNCOOS strengths include a high diversification of stakeholders in the region, a strong outreach component, and end-user driven product development. In the past year, CeNCOOS has continued to evolve as an organization while improving collaborative efforts to link scientific research to management. The newly formed Governance Council met in December to reshape the structure and focus of CeNCOOS. As a result, three working groups formed with a focus on 1) marine populations and interannual variability; 2) water quality and 3) safe and efficient marine operations. In addition, CeNCOOS is working closely with local marine organizations, specifically with the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuaryís SIMoN program to develop a web-based information management and data discovery tool for IOOS, oceanObs. As we progress, the collaboration and development of an ocean observing system will increase quality and quantity of data products available for the benefit of marine conservation and design of marine protected areas.

King, Aaron, Kelly Chapin, and Charles Wahle

MPA Science Institute, NOAA National Marine Protected Areas Center, Monterey, CA

Navigating the Nationís Marine Protected Areas

In order to promote awareness of the nationís marine protected areas (MPAs) within the maritime community, NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and NOAAís Office of Coast Survey are collaborating on a project called "Navigating the Nation's Marine Protected Areas." This project has multiple components: 1) incorporating key information about existing MPAs into the U.S. Coast Pilot, 2) creating a marine information object (MIO) for inclusion into Electronic Navigation Charts (ENCs), and 3) populating the MPA MIO for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary as a pilot project. The maritime community relies heavily on the U.S. Coast Pilot and NOAA navigational charts to educate themselves on coastal issues relating to safe navigation, access to marine facilities and environmental regulations. MPA information inserted into these publications and products will assist mariners and other users in understanding the location, purpose, jurisdictions and allowed activities within these areas. This awareness will increase protection for our nationís MPAs, as well as enhance safe navigation.

Klemanski, Matt

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary: The Importance of Marine Protected Areas

While isolated on the tiny island of South Caicos, I had the opportunity to study hands on the variety of different ways in which the community could offer protection to its most valued marine resources through the sustainability of the plethora of pristine coral reefs. The local measures taken for sustainability have globally profound impacts on the ecological diversity and socio-economic status on the island. With the burgeoning tourism industry, it is crucial that the TCI works together to establish marine policies and regulations that will yield sustainable harvest of its primary natural resources, Queen conch (Strombus Gigas) and the Spiny lobster (Panulirus Argus). Back in the United States, these same values and principles must be applied to the numerous MPAs of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. In order for us to live in harmony with the ocean we must work together to avoid overexploitation of natural resources, limit pollution runoff into waterways and spread the imperative message of oceanic conservation to local community members. Fortunately for the United States, our main industry does not entirely rely on marine biodiversity for economic prosperity, like the Turks and Caicos Islands. However, it is important for us to learn from smaller countries like these the moral responsibility behind conserving and protecting our marine sanctuaries as they in turn affect the functioning biology of life both in and out of the water.

Lipphardt, Bruce L. Jr. (1), Jeffrey D. Paduan (2), Michael S. Cook (2), A. Denny Kirwan, Jr. (1), Des Small (3), Steve Wiggins (3), Kato Ide (4), and Chester E. Grosch (5)

1. College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Newark, DE
2. Department of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA
3. School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
4. Department of Atmospheric Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA
5. Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA

Synoptic Lagrangian Maps: Application to Surface Transport in Monterey Bay

Here we report on an effort to describe in detail the evolution of surface water particles in Monterey Bay from the time they first enter until the time they leave. The data used for this study are objective mappings from hourly surface currents obtained from high frequency (HF) radar measurements in Monterey Bay for the period 2 June through 4 August 1999. The basic concept is simple: compute the origin and fate of a large number of particles for every hour during the analysis period. However, analyzing and displaying the enormous amount of computed trajectory information required a new data compression technique: synoptic Lagrangian maps produced by representing each trajectory by its origin/fate and its residence time. The results show unexpected complexity and variability not apparent in the Eulerian current archive. For example the fraction of particles that escaped to the open ocean during this period varied from about 17 to more than 92 percent. Mean particle residence times ranged from 4.5 to 11 days. The distribution of particle residence times and transport pathways varied over time scales from hours to weeks, and space scales from 2 to 40 km. The wide range of variability in particle properties reported here shows that surface transport studies in Monterey Bay require detailed wind and tidal current information over the entire bay, as well as information about the flow along the open ocean boundary.

Malone, Dan, Craig Syms, Mark Carr, Paul Tompkins, Jamie Grover, Randolph Skrovan, Amanda Jensen, and Selena McMillan

Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA

Reserve Effects on Kelp Forest Fish Populations in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

PISCO conducts long term monitoring of kelp-forest associated fish communities at sites both inside and outside of marine protected areas in the Monterey Bay region including Hopkins Marine Life Refuge, Point Lobos State Reserve and Big Creek State Marine Reserve. These surveys have been conducted annually over a period of seven years since 1999. This sampling effort also provides data on invertebrate and algal densities as well as habitat characteristics such as substrate type and topographical relief. Multivariate analyses of monitoring data show significant differences in fish assemblages both between the three reserve areas mentioned above, and between sites located inside and outside the boundaries of each reserve. Significantly greater numbers of fish were seen for 5 out of 13 common species targeted by fishermen (mostly rockfish in the genus Sebastes), whereas only 1 out of 10 common non-targeted species was more abundant within reserves. Habitat at study sites within marine reserves differs from non-reserve sites in having more bedrock and higher relief, but these habitat differences were not correlated with observed differences in fish abundance. No significant differences in either the average length or the proportion of larger fish were seen between reserve and non-reserve sites, however based on estimates of Length Specific Fecundity for individual species, target fish populations have significantly higher biomass and larval-production capacity within reserve boundaries. Interestingly, these results contrast with those of an earlier study, which found that fish were larger, but not significantly more abundant within these same reserves.

Nevins, Hannah M. (1,2), Elizabeth M. Phillips (1,2), David Jessup (2), and James T. Harvey (1)

1. Coastal Ocean Mammal and Bird Education & Research Survey (COMBERS), Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, California State Universities, Moss Landing, CA
2. Department of Fish and Game, Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center, Santa Cruz, CA

Beach COMBERS: Using Surveys of Beached Marine Birds to Monitor Natural and Human-related Impacts to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, 1997 - 2005.

Since 1997, trained COMBER volunteers have conducted monthly beached bird and mammal surveys in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Using standardized survey methods, we have obtained baseline rates of deposition (birds km-1mo.-1) of beached birds and identified unusual mortality events related to human activities (e.g. fishery bycatch, oil spills) and natural phenomena (e.g. starvation events). We maintain a network of scientists, researchers and resource managers to enable early detection and investigation of mortality events. During 1997 to 2004, we examined trends in mortality of resident species, including Common Murre (Uria aalge) and Brandtís Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicullatus); and migratory species, including Sooty Shearwaters (Puffinus griseus), Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), loons (Gavia spp.), grebes (Aechmophorus spp.), and gulls (Larus spp.). We also report on recent multi-species die-off documented during the summer of 2005 which affected mainly cormorants and other resident breeding species.

Pederson, Josh (1,2)

1. Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network, Monterey, CA
2. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Monterey, CA

SIMoN Photo Database: online resource of central California marine life imagery

The Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network (SIMoN) Photo Database ( is a publicly accessible repository of digital images collected by staff and partners of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Consisting of over 1,200 high quality digital images, the photo database is searchable by keyword, species name, or general category (fish, seabirds, etc). Photos are continually updated and are available for download and use in non-profit activities. See

Phan, Cherry

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Marine Biodiversity: The Need for Public Awareness

There should be a growing concern for marine biodiversity because it plays an essential role in the survival of all life. Marine biodiversity is a leading source for the worldís food supply and raw materials. It is also significant for its contributions to medical discoveries and scientific knowledge. Thus, its degradation may have substantial negative implications. However, marine biodiversity has an innate importance and should not exist for the sole purpose of meeting human needs. Although humans have distinctive roles, non-human beings are significant too. Some believe marine biodiversity is important because they respect nature or appreciate natureís beauty. Others may feel morally obligated to preserve nature for future generations. But nature is also respected as Godís creation, and to undo it would be wrong. These practices have facilitated the establishment of marine protected areas aimed at protecting vital habitats and marine life. MPAs are also involved in ocean restorations to continue its productivity and prevent further deterioration. Although several factors have led to decreased marine biodiversity, the greatest change needed is increased public awareness. This can be attained by educating all people about its necessity and the threat it can impose. After understanding the true value of marine biodiversity, people can then be influenced to take immediate and proper action.

Quaranta, Kimberly L. (1), Lara Ferry-Graham (1), and Peter Wainwright (2)

1. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, CA
2. Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA

Feeding Mechanisms and Jaw Morphology as it Relates to Foraging Ecology and Diversity of the Family Embiotocidae

The complexity of jaw function and mechanics in bony fish is unmatched by most other organisms. Differences in feeding mode can separate groups of fish not only at the ordinal level, but also at the family level. Embiotocidae (surfperch) is a family comprised of 23 species and 14 genera. Most of the species in this family have geographic ranges which overlap resulting in sharing of food resources and the potential for competition. Investigation of feeding morphology of this particular group has lead to evidence demonstrating the familyís ability to utilize different ecological niches owing to the features of the foraging mechanism. Using new methods and techniques in biomechanical modeling, the functional consequences of jaw mechanisms can be studied and to better understand this radiation into ecological niches. The outcome of such modeling should provide insight on morphological differences between species that allow them to coexist and maintain their diversity.

Robison, Rondi J.

Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA

The Center for Integrated Marine Technologies: Long-term Ocean Observing System in Monterey Bay Can Provide Oceanographic Data and Monitoring Information toward Marine Protected Areas

The Center for Integrated Marine Technologies (CIMT) was organized to understand the relationship between the physical dynamics and productivity, from wind to whales, of California's coastal ocean. CIMTís mission is to create a coastal ocean observing and forecasting system that provides a scientific basis for the management and conservation of the Monterey Bay, and serves as a model for all of California's coastal marine resources. The CIMT falls within the Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System (CeNCOOS) and has been simultaneously collecting data via moorings, shipboard surveys, apex predator tagging and tracking, and satellite, aircraft, and land-based remote sensing since 2002 and is build on a foundation of data from the Wind to Whales effort since 1997. Data integration provides new insights to the complex interactions among resource characterization, climatic events, riverine input of iron, and wind-driven coastal upwelling of nutrients to phytoplankton production, the distribution and abundance of animals from zooplankton to fish, seabirds, marine mammals and sea turtles. This approach provides the ability to develop predictive models of how marine resources respond to variability in coastal dynamics. The CIMT data and information collected is available and being integrated in multiple formats from raw data to models to GIS. This information is available to stakeholders and can prove valuable in the marine protected area process.

Sanders, Lindsey E. and Eliza N. Angila-Beban

San Lorenzo Valley High School, Watershed Academy, Felton, CA

A Comparison of Amphibian Diversity in the San Lorenzo Valley, CA

Our goal is to acquire an understanding of the amphibian species composition and diversity at each of out sites in the San Lorenzo Valley in Santa Cruz County, California. Our investigative question is: How does the species composition differ at two different sites [Quail Hollow Ranch (QHR) and Waterman Gap (WG)] within the Valley? We hypothesized that QHR supports larger populations of aquatic-breeding amphibians (due to the presence of an undisturbed pond and three spring boxes) and WG has fewer aquatic-breeding and greater numbers of terrestrial-breeding amphibians (due to the presence of a fast-flowing stream and surrounding riverbanks). At QHR we perform an evening search of the pond looking for amphibian eyeshine, egg clusters, and tadpoles. We listen for treefrog calls and search the spring boxes. At WG we scan riparian habitats and search beneath woody debris. In comparing the amphibian species compositions at QHR and WG, we search both aquatic and terrestrial environments to locate amphibians and note the biotic and abiotic factors (weather, vegetation, etc.) between the two sites that may cause differences in amphibian populations. We have found the expected differences in the species composition at the sites: more aquatic-breeders at QHR and more terrestrial-breeders at WG. Presently, we have no conclusive data because we have not completed our data collection and analysis.

Shuster, Michael and Michael Van

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Surfing the Web of Biodiversity

In order to maintain species diversity in the oceans, specifically that of the Monterey Bay, the number and size of marine protected areas should be increased. Marine biodiversity is an absolute necessity because of the interrelatedness of all of the species in the oceans, more so than that of species on land. The tight-knit food web found in marine areas leads indirectly through many different species all the way up the food chain to humans. As humans, we have specific moral obligations to ourselves, our contemporaries, as well as future generations to maintain as best we can the complex web of existence that we cannot separate ourselves from. Without biodiversity in the oceans, future generations will struggle to meet the higher demands of a rising population for ocean grown food. We should protect more ocean area to ensure marine biodiversity, and thus, to stabilize the food web in the oceans.

Starr, R. (1), E. Burton (2), M. Erdey (1), J. de Marignac (2), A. Greenley (1), R. Lea (3), E. Morris (1), L. Snook (1), and M. Yoklavich (4)

1. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, CA
2. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Monterey, CA
3. California Department of Fish and Game, Santa Cruz, CA
4. NOAA Fisheries, Santa Cruz, CA

Monitoring of Groundfish Resources in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

In August 2004, we conducted 144 underwater video 10-minute strips transects using the Delta submersible at depths ranging from 70 to 120 meters in rocky habitats within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, California. Our goals were to develop a baseline with which to compare future changes in species composition, size composition, and relative abundance of groundfishes off the Monterey Peninsula and Point Sur, compare the fishes of the two areas, and intensively sample rocky habitats to determine the number of submersible transects needed to detect statistically different changes in species composition and relative abundance of fishes at various levels of predictability (power analysis). Initial analysis suggests that deeper low-relief areas have higher species diversity and more large rockfishes than shallower high-relief areas; overall species diversity was greater, and large rockfish species were more numerous and larger in size off Point Sur than off Monterey Peninsula.

Steffenson, James and Christine Masterman

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Protecting the Ocean Ecosystem: Focusing on the Damaging Effects of Coastal Development

Preserving the oceans is vital not only to humans, but also to the marine life inhabiting those regions. However, little attention is being paid to the problem of protecting the ocean ecosystem. For example, as coastal development rises, little attention is being placed on the damaging effects to our coastal environment caused by this expansion. As both residential and commercial development increases along our coastal shores, a significant portion of land is being consumed. As a result, wetlands and estuaries are disappearing, along with creating the problem of pollutant runoff from the roadways being put in place. Religious values tell us to appreciate all creations of God equally, but with the coastal sprawl on the rise, the importance of ocean life is being disregarded. As good stewards of both land and sea, caring for the ocean ecosystem is not a choice, rather an obligation. Specific attention, whether through civic participation or government action, needs to be placed on the problem of coastal development. At the core of the issue, is the lack of public awareness of this specific problem. If nothing else, people should be made aware of the damaging effects caused by urban sprawl.

Storlazzi, Curt

U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Science Center, Santa Cruz, CA

Sou'westers - Why Winter Storms During El Niño Events Cause Heavy Coastal Erosion and Storm Damage

Significant sea cliff erosion and storm damage occurred along the central coast of California during the 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Niño winters, generating interest in understanding why these storms appeared to be more destructive than storms during La Niña winters. The deployment of robust oceanographic deepwater buoys by NOAA in the 1980s provides large quantities of high-resolution hourly data such as wave height, wave period, wind speed, wind direction and sea level barometric pressure. These data sets are now long enough in duration to compute statistically significant probability estimates of the behavior of the measured parameters. These data show that during El Niño winter months, sustained wave heights are greater and the waves and winds are more frequently out of the southwest than during La Niña winter months. The largest, most intense winter storms during El Niño events generally strike the coastline later in the winter, when beaches are already denuded of much of their sediment by earlier storms. Conversely, during La Niña events the strongest storms and largest waves strike earlier in the winter when the beaches are generally larger and can therefore better buffer the coastal cliffs and infrastructure. El Niño winter storms, which we term "Sou'westers", have the combination of timing, magnitude and direction that cause disproportionately greater beach erosion and storm damage to infrastructure along the coastline of central California than the storms during La Niña winters.

Suarez, Virginia

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Intrinsic Good

The Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary houses thousands of species many that are now endangered. The Snowy Plover is on that list; itís a very small bird that nests on beach shores, many times they are literally overlooked. Visitors of the sanctuary need to acknowledge its existence. All of Godís creatures have the right to live in their natural habitat. The bird is defenseless, we need to assist it in order increase its population all over the state. Using elements from Popular Catholicism I want to convey the importance of all creatures, from its greatest to the smallest. Linking Catholic spirituality will encourage Catholics and others to realize that all of the earthsí creatures, plants, animals and humans, are under Godís care; that humans were put on earth to be stewards of it, and not to destroy it. Through introducing one of the many issues facing the Monterey Bay as we speak we can promote preservation of the Snowy Plover and other endangered species. Protecting endangered species is important so we donít alter the ecosystem any further; weíve already destroyed it enough, we donít need to keep doing it.

Sweeney, Joelle M (1,2) and James T. Harvey (1)

1. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, CA
2. The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA

Variables affecting hard part recovery from scats and spews of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)

The California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, is a marine piscivore and a top-level predator found along the western coast of North and Central America. Diet determination is pertinent to understanding the mechanism by which California sea lions exploit available prey items. Rates of passage and percentage recovery of prey otoliths of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were observed in this study. Nine sea lions were individually enclosed in a 2.44-m tall, 6.1-m diameter tank with an internal haul-out. Sea lions were fed most or all of eight natural prey items including northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Pacific whiting (Merluccius productus), adult pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), steelhead salmon smolt (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), short-bellied rockfish (Sebastes jordanii), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), and jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus). Each animal was monitored for 12 hours per day, and scat collected. The tank was drained every 24 hours to collect remnants. Passage rates of otoliths did not differ significantly among prey species, among sea lions, between single and mixed meals, or between small and large meals. Percentage recovery differed significantly among prey species. These results will be used to develop correction factors for sampling wild California sea lions to better determine diet composition. It is important to study the food habits of this opportunistic predator to understand the impact on commercially important species, particularly threatened and endangered salmonid populations.

Thayer, Julie A. (1,2)

1. Marine Ecology Division, PRBO Conservation Science, Stinson Beach, CA,
2. Wildlife, Fish & Conservation Biology Department, University of California, Davis, CA

Proposed Ano Nuevo Marine Reserve in the northern Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

The proposed Ano Nuevo marine reserve would protect a key productivity and biodiversity hotspot in central California. The area between Franklin Point and Greyhound Rock contains multiple habitat types, including a large, persistent upwelling plume that provides nutrients for Monterey Bay, results in large amounts of primary and secondary production, and supports important fishes, marine mammals and seabirds higher up the food web. Ano Nuevo Island and the surrounding area provide breeding and haul-out habitat for over 18,000 marine mammals and 9,000 seabirds, including the threatened Steller Sea Lion, endangered Brown Pelican, California species of special concern Rhinoceros Auklet, Cassin's Auklet and Ashy Storm-Petrel, and California Current endemics Brandt's Cormorant and Western Gull. Coastal kelp forests, eelgrass beds, rocky reefs, and soft substrates provide habitat for overfished groundfish species as well as foraging opportunities for other predators such as the threatened Southern Sea Otter, endangered Marbled Murrelet, and White Shark. An existing Invertebrate Area Special Closure at Ano Nuevo would be included in this MPA. The Gazos, Waddell and Scott Creek estuaries support populations of endangered Snowy Plover and Coho Salmon and threatened Steelhead. Regional resource problems include human disturbance, direct competition of fisheries with marine predators, bycatch, and oil and other contaminants. Both benthic and pelagic species would be protected by this reserve. For example, pelagic forage species such as anchovy occur in patches, which often concentrate at frontal zones like those created by upwelling plumes, rendering them vulnerable to harvest and thus removing them from reproductive populations and the food web.

Wahle, Charles (1), Kelly Chapin (1), Rikki Dunsmore (1), Lisa Wooninck (1,2), Nicole Woodling (1)

1. MPA Science Institute, NOAA National Marine Protected Areas Center, Monterey, CA
2. NOAA Fisheries Lab, Santa Cruz, CA

A Functional Classification System for MPAs Illustrates Their Role in Conserving U.S. Marine Ecosystems

Faced with widespread declines in ocean health, many nations are establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) to conserve their most important marine habitats and species. While MPAs hold much promise as a multifaceted tool for conserving marine habitats and ecosystems, their successful establishment and long-term effectiveness continue to be complicated by chronic confusion among stakeholders, scientists and policy-makers about the purpose and implications of different types of MPAs. At the root of this confusion lies terminology. Official programmatic names for MPAs (e.g. sanctuaries, parks, natural areas, reserves) rarely convey an accurate picture of the site's actual intended function, type of restrictions, or potential effects on ecosystems or human users. In order to provide a neutral common language for considering MPAs, NOAA's National MPA Center has developed a new classification system that uses objective, functional criteria to describe any MPA - independent of programmatic names or value-laden terminology. The classification system uses six characteristics derived from the MPA's legal mandate and management approach: (i) conservation focus; (ii) level of protection; (iii) ecological scale of protection; (iv) permanence of protection; (v) constancy of protection; and, (vi) restrictions on extraction. When applied to the MPA Centerís growing national inventory of marine managed areas, the classification system reveals important trends in the use, purpose and likely conservation impacts of different types of MPAs in U.S. marine ecosystems.

Wertz, Lisa A.

Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, CA

Fishes in the Diet of Brandt's Cormorants (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) During the Nonbreeding Season in Moss Landing, CA

Cormorants feed opportunistically; however, many of the fishes they eat rely on zooplankton as their food source. During years of decreased upwelling when zooplankton abundances are low, cormorants may be susceptible to starvation. In April and May 2005, Coastal Ocean Marine Bird and Mammal Education and Research Surveys reported a seabird mortality event in Monterey Bay. Brandtís Cormorants (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) comprised 67% of the dead birds and all were classified as emaciated except one whose stomach contained northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax). A severe food limitation was suggested as the cause of the mortality event. I examined the diet of Brandtís Cormorants roosting on the south jetty of Moss Landing Harbor during the nonbreeding season (September to November 2005) using regurgitated pellets (n = 20). For each pellet, fish otoliths were extracted and identified to the lowest taxonomic level. I compared fish species composition in the diet of Brandtís Cormorants from September 1974 to April 1975 (Baltz and Morejohn 1977) with my results. Percent similarity between the two studies was 40%. Baltz and Morejohn (1977) reported percent numerical abundance of 36% rockfishes (Sebastes spp.), 34% anchovy, 18% Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus), and 2% speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus) compared to 71% anchovy, 16% speckled sanddab, 1% rockfishes, and 1% Pacific sanddab in this study. The observed differences in prey may be a result of the oceanographic anomaly in 2005 or may be an indicator of a more permanent change in the diet, warranting further investigation.

West, T.R and Keenan R. Roop

San Lorenzo Valley High School, Watershed Academy, Felton CA

Air Pollution in Felton?

The purpose of this project is to track local trends in atmospheric contaminants, specifically carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide levels, and how they vary based on weather, UV radiation, wind direction/speed, and the time of the year. Our investigative question is: What are the trends of atmospheric pollution in the San Lorenzo Valley? Our hypothesis is that there will be more atmospheric damage in the winter and summer months due to wood burning, barbeques, and automotive activity, and lower atmospheric damage in the milder spring and autumn months. The main materials that we use are the standard LaMotte atmospheric testing kits. There are three main boxes that we use; the carbon monoxide kit, the nitrogen dioxide kit, and the air pump. The other equipment that we use is; a standard labpro (with UV, Temperature, and barometric measuring apparatus), Ti 89 calculator, and a kestrel wind measurement device. We use the LaMotte Testing kits to gather our quantitative data. We are using an air pump and colorimetric methods to determine carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. For UV, we use CBL and sun sensors for UVA and UVB. We began monitoring in Fall 05 at San Lorenzo Valley High school, a location adjacent to state hwy 9. Many residences in the Valley rely on wood stoves for their winter heat, which will influence the levels of carbon. So far, our results are consistent with our hypothesis. As the weather gets colder, we are detecting higher levels of carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. Since very little is done to monitor the atmosphere, this experiment is a major step forward on environmental monitoring.

Wooninck, Lisa (1,2), Rikki Grober-Dunsmore (2), Elaine Soulanille (1,2), Charles Wahle (2), and Churchill Grimes (1)

1. NOAA Fisheries Lab, Santa Cruz, CA
2. National Marine Protected Areas Center ñ Science Institute, Monterey and Santa Cruz, CA

Integration of Marine Protected Areas Science and Fisheries Science and Management

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been promoted as a new tool for the management of our nationís marine resources, however there is disagreement among fisheries scientists and conservation biologists about the effectiveness of MPAs at meeting fisheries and/or biodiversity conservation goals. To address this problem, NOAA's Southwest Fisheries Science Center Laboratory in Santa Cruz and NOAAís National Marine Protected Areas Center - Science Institute have convened an expert group of fisheries and conservation biologists, sociologists, and economists to develop the scientific information necessary for a multi-disciplinary and integrative approach to improve the design, management, and evaluation of MPAs for both fisheries and marine conservation purposes. The working group divided the larger problem into subtopics and formed three teams focused on Fisheries, Natural Heritage, and Connectivity. Among the products in development by these teams are a series of peer reviewed papers and reports useful to fisheries and MPA managers alike, and include for example, a) an analysis of MPA effects on yield and stock assessment inputs and assumptions, and potential solutions; b) guidance and measurable objectives for the design and evaluation of MPAs implemented for natural heritage protection; and c) a synthesis of information on the movement/dispersal of fishermen and marine organisms to evaluate the influence of connectivity on the effectiveness of networks of MPAs. In addition, members of the Fisheries and Natural Heritage teams are collaborating to develop common ecological indicators to evaluate the costs and benefits of various management options on fisheries and natural heritage simultaneously.


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