National marine sanctuary offices and visitor centers closed to the public; waters remain open

NOAA's national marine sanctuary offices and visitor centers are closed to the public while the waters remain open for responsible use in accordance with CDC guidance and local regulations. More information on the response from NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries can be found on

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Research Technical Report

Marine Sanctuaries and Parks

Douros, W.J. and A.P. DeVogelaere (2007)

In: M.W. Denny and S.D. Gaines (eds.), Encyclopedia of Tidepools and Rocky Shores, University of California Press, Berkeley, California. p. 348-352


Most nations set aside sites that protect nationally significant areas. Many include intertidal communities. In the United States, such nationally protected sites are called National Parks, National Monuments, and National Marine Sanctuaries. Protected areas provide distinct challenges to managers. Although they typically have a mandate to protect intertidal resources, managers often must also promote human access and visitation. Many human impacts to intertidal communities come from human access. Management issues related to rocky shores include public benefits and human uses.