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Research Technical Report

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NOAA Institutional Repository

Final Endangered Species Act Recovery Plan for Black Abalone (Haliotis cracherodii)

National Marine Fisheries Service (November 2020)

National Marine Fisheries Service, West Coast Region, Protected Resources Division, Long Beach, CA 90802


NMFS developed this final Recovery Plan pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). This Recovery Plan reflects features of a recovery planning approach (termed the 3- part framework) developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and adopted by NMFS as an optional approach to recovery planning. Under the 3- part framework, the Recovery Plan focuses on the ESA statutory requirements, which are to identify, to the maximum extent practicable, recovery criteria, recovery actions, and time and cost estimates. More in-depth scientific information and analyses, as well as activities that address the site-specific recovery actions, are contained in supplemental information made available on the NOAA Fisheries Black Abalone Webpage (

The major sections of this Recovery Plan include:

  • Part 1. Background, providing a summary of black abalone biology, status, threats, and conservation measures that affect the species’ recovery potential.
  • Part 2. Recovery Strategy, laying out the long-term guiding principles for the criteria and actions that comprise the black abalone recovery program.
  • Part 3. Recovery Goals, Objectives, and Criteria, describing the desired outcomes (goals) of the Recovery Plan, the conditions necessary to achieve these outcomes (objectives), and the values we will use to measure progress toward recovery (criteria).
  • Part 4. Recovery Actions, describing the long-term actions needed to achieve the Recovery Criteria and general implementation responsibilities.
  • Part 5. Time and Cost Estimates (Implementation Schedule) to achieve the goal of recovering and delisting the species.

Supplemental material available on the NOAA Fisheries Black Abalone Webpage:

  • Five-Year Status Review, providing details about the species’ biology, status, and threats.
  • Five-year Recovery Implementation Strategy (RIS) to implement recovery actions in the short term. This RIS fits within the long-term implementation strategy and site-specific recovery actions identified in this Recovery Plan.

The draft recovery plan was reviewed by the public and two peer reviewers. To prepare the final Recovery Plan, we considered all comments received during the review period and made relevant revisions in response. The Five-Year Status Review and RIS are made available for informational purposes but are not subject to formal public review. We expect to update these documents as we implement the Recovery Plan and more information becomes available.

Reviewed: April 11, 2024
Web Site Owner: National Ocean Service

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