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Cross section of typical Central California kelp forest showing distribution of common species and microhabitats associated with the forest.

    A. Canopy assemblages (isopods, tubeworms, and bryozoans).
    B. Planktonic assemblages (jellyfish, fish larvae, diatoms, and crustaceans).
    C. Holdfast assemblages (sea urchins, crustaceans, brittle stars, and anemones).
    D. Horizontal substrate assemblages (urchins, sea stars, algae, tunicates, and bottom fish).
    E. Vertical wall assemblages (coralline algae, anemones, cup corals, sponges, and bryozoans).
Revised from Foster et al. 1983.

Reviewed: September 08, 2023
Web Site Owner: National Ocean Service

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