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PART VIII: REFERENCES

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Cover
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Part I:
Executive Summary
Part II:
The Affected Environment
  I. Regional Context
  II. Sanctuary Resources
  III. Human ActivitiesI
  IV. Existing Resource Protection Regime
Part III:
Alternatives Including The Preferred Alternative
  I. Boundary Alternatives
  II.Regulatory Alternatives
  III. Management Alternatives
Part IV
Environmental Concequences
  I. Boundary Alternatives
  II. Regulatory Alternatives
  III. Management Alternative Consequences
  IV. Unavoidable Adverse Environmental or Socioeconomic Effects
  V. Relationship Between Short-term Uses of the Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement of Long-term Productivity
Part V:
Sanctuary Management Plan
  I. Introduction
  II. Resource Protection
  III. Research
  IV. Education
  V. Administration
Part VI:
List of Preparers and Alternatives
Part VII:
List of Agencies, Organizations, and Persons Receiving Copies
Part VIII:
References
Part IX
Appendices

Abbott, I.A. and G.J. Hollenberg. 1976. Marine Algae of California. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 827p.

AMBAG (Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments). 1978. A Matter of Values: Nominations and Comments on Leasing on the Outer Continental Shelf, Central and Northern California. 60p.

AMBAG (Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments). 1987. Annual Report of the Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments: 1986- 1987. 17p.

Anderson, M.E. and G.M. Cailliet. 1975. Occurrence of the Rare Pacific Frostfish, Benthodesmus elongatus pacificus Parin and Becker, 1970, in Monterey Bay, California. California Fish and Game, 61(3):149-152.

Anderson, M.E., G.M. Cailliet, and B.S. Antrim. 1979. Notes On Some Uncommon Deep-sea Fishes From the Monterey Bay Area, California. Calif. Fish and Game 65(4):256-264.

Anderson and Labelle. 1990. "Estimated Occurrence Rates for Analysis of Accidental Oil Spills on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf", Oil and Chemical Pollution, Vol. 6 No. 1, pages 21-35.

Baker, Ron, 1985, A Primer on Offshore Operations. Published by Petroleum Extension Service.

Baldridge, A. 1972. Killer Whales Attack and Eat a Gray Whale. J. Mammal. 53:898-900

Baldridge, A. 1973. The Status of the Brown Pelican in the Monterey Region of California: Past and Present. Western Birds 4:93-100.

Barham, E.G. 1956. The Ecology of Sonic Scattering Layers in the Monterey Bay Area. Stanford University, Hopkins Marine Station Thesis. 182pp.

Beardsley, R.C., C.E. Dorman, C.A. Friehe, L.K. Rosenfeld and C.D. Winant. 1987. Local atmospheric forcing during the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment- 1.A description of the marine boundary layer and atmospheric conditions over a northern California upwelling region. Journal of Geophysical Research. 92:91467-1488.

Beck, R.H. 1910. Water Birds of the Vicinity of Point Pinos, California. Proceedings of California Academy of Sciences, 4th Ser., 3:57-72.

Bigelow, H. B. and M. Leslie. 1930. Reconnaissance of the waters and plankton of Monterey Bay. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Havard College. 70:427-581.

Bolin, R.L. and D.P. Abbott. 1963. Studies on the marine climate and phytoplankton of the central coastal area of California, 1954- 1960. California cooperative Oceanic Fisheries investigations Progress Report, IX 1 July 1960 to 30 June 1962. Marine Research Committee, California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA pp.23-45.

Bonnell, M.L., M.O. Pierson, and G.D. Farrens. 1983. Pinnipeds and Sea Otters of Central and Northern California, 1980-1983: Status, Abundance, and Distribution. Prepared by Center for Marine Studies, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, for the Pacific OCS Region, Minerals Management Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. OCS Study MMS 84-0044. 220 pp.

Braham, H. and D.W. Rice. 1984. The Right Whale, Balaena glacialis. Mar. Fish. Rev.46:38-44.

Breaker, L.C. and C.N.K. Mooers. 1986. Oceanic Variability off the Central California Coast. Progress in Oceanography, 17, 61-135.

Breaker, L.C. and W.W. Broenkow. 1989. The Circulation of Monterey Bay and Related Processes. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories Tech. Pub. 89-1.

Briggs, J.C. 1979. Marine Zoogeography. McGraw-Hill Series in Population Biology.

Briggs, K.T., W.B. Tyler, D.B. Lewis, and K.F. Dettman. 1983. Seabirds of Central and Northern California, 1980-1983: Status, Abundance, and Distribution. Center for Marine Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz. 237pp.

Briggs, K.T., and E.W. Chu. 1986. Sooty Shearwaters Off California: Distribution, Abundance, and Habitat Use. Condor 88:355-364.

Briggs, K.T., and E.W. Chu. 1987. Trophic Relationships and Food Requirements of California Seabirds: Updating Models Of Trophic Impact. Pp. 279-304 in J.P. Croxall (ed.), Seabirds: Feeding Ecology and Role in Marine Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Briggs, K.T., W.B. Tyler, D.B. Lewis, and D.R. Carlson. 1987a. Bird Communities At Sea Off California: 1975 to 1983. Studies in Avian Biology No. 11, Cooper Ornith. Soc. 74pp.

Briggs, K.T., D. G. Ainley, D.R. Carlson, D.B. Lewis, W.B. Tyler, L.B. Spear, and L.A. Ferris. 1987b. Final Report: California Seabird Ecology Study. Volume I: Feeding Ecology

Brink, K. H. 1987. Coastal ocean physical processes. Contributions in Oceanograpy, U.S. National Report 1983-1986. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. pp. 204-216.

Broenkow, W.W. and W.M. Smethie, Jr. 1978. Surface circulation and replacement of water in Monterey Bay. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science. 6:583-603.

Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 1980. Final Environmental Impact Statement, OCS Lease Sale No. 53, Vol. 1.

Bureau of Land Management. 1979a. Final Environmental Statement OCS Sale 48. Vols 1-5. U.S. DOI, BLM, Pacific OCS Office, Los Angeles, CA.

Bureau of Land Management. 1979c. Historic resource surveys in the Lease Sale #53 OCS area (Unpublished report).

Cailliet, G.M. and M.E. Anderson. 1975. Occurrence of the Prowfish Zaprora silenus, 1896 in Monterey Bay, California. California Fish and Game, 61(1): 60-62.

Cailliet, G.M. and R.N. Lea. 1977. Abundance of the "Rare" Zoarcid, Maynea californica Gilbert, 1915, in the Monterey Canyon, Monterey Bay, California. California Fish and Game, 63(4):253-261.

Cailliet, G.M. and E.K. Osada. 1988. Ecological Studies of Sablefish in Monterey Bay. California Fish and Game 74(3):132-153.

California Department of Fish and Game. 1979 Living Marine Resources of the Proposed Monterey Bay Marine Sanctuary. 25pp. California Department of Fish and Game. 1980. California Atlas of Coastal Resources.

California Department of Fish and Game. 1990. Evaluation of capabilities to Respond to Large Oil Spills in California Marine Waters. Prepared by S.L. Ross, Environmental Researach LTD. 320 pp.

California Office of Planning and Research. 1978. Staff analysis for the State's response to the call for nominations and comments for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lease Sale #53 (Central and Northern California). Memorandum, July 3, 1978.

Carter, H.R., Jaques, D.L., McChesney, G.J., Parker, M.W. 1990. Breeding Populations if Seabirds on the Northern and Central California Coasts in 1989 and 1990. Draft report for MMS, POCS and DOI.

Center for Marine Conservation. 1989. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: A Management Analysis. Prepared by Townsend Environmental and Burr Heneman for Center for Marine Conservation, Washington, D.C.

Center for Marine Studies University California Santa Cruz, Marine Mammal and Seabirds of Central and Northern California 1980-1983. MMS Contract#14-120001-29090.

Central Coast Regional Studies Program Technical Review Panel, 1990. Comments on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Management Plan.

Chabot and Assoc., Central Coast OCS Regional Studies Program. January 1989. Offshore Oil Drilling on the Central California Coast.

Chan, G.L. 1973. A study of the effects of the San Francisco Oil Spill on Marine Organisms. In: Proceedings of a Joint Conference on Prevention and Control of Oil Spills. Washington, D.C. March 10- 15, 1970. pp739-781.

Chan. G.L. 1977. The five-year recruitment of Marine Life afer the 1971 San Francisco Oil Spill. Proceedings of the 1977 Joint Conference on Prevention and Control of Oil Spills. New Orleans, Louisiana. March, 1977.

Chelton, D.B. 1984. Seasonal variability of alongshore geostrophic velocity off Central California. Journal of Geophysical Research 89:3473-3486.

Chelton, D.B. R.L. Bernstein. A. Bratkovich, and P.M. Kosro. 1988. Poleward flow off central California during the spring and summer of 1981 and 1984. Journal of Geophysical Research. 93:10604-10620.

Clark, R.A. and R.H. Osborne. 1982. Contribution of Salinas River Sand to the Beaches of Monterey Bay, California, During the 1978 Flood Period: Fournier Grain-Shape Analysis. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 52(3):807-822.

Coastal Concern. 1989. Letter to Marine and Estuarine Management Division, May 18, 1989.

Combellick, R.A. and R.H. Osborne. 1977. Sources and Petrology of Beach Sand from Southern Monterey Bay, California: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, V. 47, p.891-907.

Cooke, L.W., and G. Dellagiarino, In press. Estimates of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Outer Continental Shelf as of January 1987: U.S. Minerals Management Service OCS Report MMS 89- 0090.

Dahlstrom and Wild. 1983. Fish. Bull. Vol. 172.

Dodimead, A.J., F. Favorite and T. Hirano. 1963. Salmon of the North Pacific Ocean, part II. Review of the oceanography of the sub- Arctic Pacific region. International North Pacific Fisheries Communication Bulletin. 13. 195pp.

Dohl, T.P. 1983. Marine Mammals and Seabirds of Central and Northern California, 1980 - 1983; Synthesis of Findings. Center for Marine Studies, Univ. of Calif., Santa Cruz. Report on Contract No. 14- 12-0001-29090 to Pacific OCS Region, Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

Dohrenwend, J. C. 1971. Marine Geology of the Continental Shelf Between Point Lobos and Point Sur, California: A Reconnaissance. Independent Research Report, Stanford University.

Earth Metrics, Inc. 1986. Final Environmental Impact Report for the Long Term Wastewater Management Plan, Cities of Gilroy and Morgan Hill.

Ecological Consulting Inc., 1990. Atlas of Marine resources for Central California, Central Coast Regional Studies Program, San Francisco, CA.

Ecomar, Inc. 1981. Final oceanographic studies report (November, 1979 to December, 1980), Volume 1. For J.M. Montgomery Consulting Engineers, Inc. 273pp.

Engineering Science, Inc. 1978. Facilities plan for north Monterey County, draft oceanographic pre-design report. 1. Engineering Science, Inc., Berkeley, CA.

Environmental Protection Agency. 1985. Assessment of Environmental Fate and Effects of Discharges from Offshore Oil and Gas Operations. EPA 440/-4-85/002.

Estes, J.A. and J.F. Palmisano. 1974. Sea Otters: Their Role in Structuring Nearshore Communities. Science 185:1058-1060.

Farrell, T.M. D. Bracher and J. Roughgarden. 1990. Cross-shelf transport causes recruitment to intertidal populations in central California. Limnology and Oceanography. In press.

Fiest, D.L. and Boehm, P.D. 1980. Subsurface distributions of petroleum from an offshore well blowout - the IXTOC-I blowout, Bay of Campeche. In: Proceedings of a symposium on preliminary results from the September 1979 Researcher/Pierce IXTOC-1 cruise, Key Biscayne, FL, June 9-10, 1980. Boulder, CO: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA pp.169-180.

Fish and Wildlife Service. 1987. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Translocation of Southern Sea Otters. 89 pp.

Flegal, A.R., M. Stephanson, M. Martin, and J.H. Martin. 1981. Elevated Concentrations of Mercury in Mussels (Mytilus californianus) Associated with Pinniped Colonies. Marine Biology 65, 45-48 (1981).

Flegal, A.K., K.J. Rosman, and M.D. Stephanson. 1987. Isotope Systematics of Contaminant Leads in Monterey Bay. Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.21.

Foster, M.S. and D.R. Schiel. 1985. The Ecology of Giant Kelp Forests in California: A Community Profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv. Biol. Rep. 85(7.2). 152p.

Foster, M.S., A.P. De Vogelaere, C. Harrold, J.S. Pearse, and A.B. Thum. 1988. Causes of Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Rocky Intertidal Communities of Central and Northern California. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences No. 9.

Futures Group. l982. Final Technical Report, Outer Continental Shelf Oil Spill Probability Assessment. Prepared by The Futures Group, Glastonberry, Connecticut, for the Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior.

Garrison, D.L. 1979. Monterey Bay Phytoplankton. I. Seasonal cycles of Phytoplanton Assemblages. J. Plankton Res. 1(3):241-264.

Geraci, J.R. and D.J. St. Aubin. l980. "Offshore Petroleum Resource Development and Marine Mammals: a Review and Research Recommendations." Marine Fisheries Review, Nov. l980.

Geraci, J.R. and D. J. St. Aubin. l982. Study of the Effects of Oil on Cetaceans. Prepared for the Department of the Interior and cited in MMS, l984.

Geraci, J.R. and D.J. St. Aubin. l983. "Fifth Interim Report_Study of the Effects of Oil on Marine Mammals." Prepared for MMS and cited in MMS, l984.

Geraci, J.R. and T. G. Smith. 1977. Consequences of Oil Fouling on Marine Mammals. In: D.C. Malins (ed.) Effects of Petroleum on Arctic and Subarctic Marine Environments an Organisms. Volume II. Biological Effrects. Academic Press. New York, NY. pp.399-409.

Gordon, B.L. 1977. Monterey Bay Area: Natural History and Cultural Imprints. Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, CA. 321p.

Greene, H.G. 1977. Geology of the Monterey Bay Region. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-718, 347p.

Greene, H.G., In Press, McGraw Hill.

Griggs, G. 1986. Monterey Bay - Its Geologic and Hydrologic Setting. Abstract to the Symposium on Managing Inflows to California's Bays and Estuaries. 13-15 November, 1986, Monterey, CA.

Gross, M.G. 1972. Oceanography - A View of the Earth. Prentice- Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Haley, D. 1978. Marine Mammals. Pacific Search Press, Seattle, WA.

Haley, D. 1987. Marine Mammals. 2nd revised edition. Pacific Search Press, Seattle, WA.

Halliwell, G.R., Jr. and J.S. Allen. 1987. The large-scale coastal wind field along the west coast of North America. Journal of Geophysical Research. 92:1861-1884.

Hanan, D., J.P. Scholl, and S.L. Diamond. 1987. Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina richardsi, Census in California, June 2-5, 30, and July 1, 1986. Final Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Region. Administrative Report SWR 87-341p.

Harvey, J.T. 1979. Aspects of the Life History of the Blue Shark, Prionace glauca L., in Monterey Bay, California. Master's Thesis, San Jose State University. 105pp.

Harville, J.P. (ed.). 1971. Environmental Studies of Monterey Bay and the Central California Coastal Zone. Moss Landing Marine Lab. Annual Report, 113pp.

Hauschildt, K.S. 1985. Remotely Sensed Chlorophyll and Temperature Distributions Off Central California and Their Potential Relations to Commercial Fish Catches. M.A. Thesis, San Francisco State University. 154 pp.

Hayes, S.P. and P.T. Phillips. 1987. California State Mussel Watch Marine Water Quality Monitoring Program 1985-1986. Calif. State Water Resources Control Board, Water Quality Monitoring Report No. 87-2WQ.

Hawkes, J. 1977. Morphological abnormalities produced by hydrocarbon exposure. In: D.A. Wolfe (Ed.). Fate and Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Ecosystems and Organisms. Pergamon Press. New York, NY.

Heimlich-Boran, J.R. 1988. Marine Resources and Human Activities in the Monterey Bay Area. Center for Environmental Education, April 1988.

Hickey, B.M. 1979. The California Current system-hypotheses and facts. Progress in Oceanography. 8:191-279.

Holmes, W. N. and J. Cronshaw. 1977. Biological Effects of Petroleum on Marine Birds. In D.C. Malins (ed.). Effects of Petroleum on Arctic and Subarctic Marine Environments and Organisms. Volume II. Biological Effects. Academic Press. New York, NY. pp 359- 398.

Holton, R.L., R.D. Leatham, and G.F. Crandell. 1977. Zooplankton. Chapter IV In: Winzler & Kelly Consultants (eds). A Summary of Knowledge of the Central and Northern California Coastal Zone and Offshore Areas; Vol.II: Biological Conditions. NTIS PB-274 212.

Johnston, C.S. l979. "Sources and Effects of Hydrocarbons in the Marine Environment," The Marine Environment and Oil Facilities. Inst. of Civil Engrs., London.

Kellogg, M.G., B.E. Bowman, C. Chaffee, D. Drake, E. Fogarine, S. Gray, S. Sturgle, B. Weitgrecht, and M.J. Herz. 1978. Reconaissance Survey of the Farallon Islands Area of Special Biological Significance. Farallon Research Group. Oceanic Society, San Francisoc, CA. 148 p.

Kooyman, G.L., R.W. Davis, and M.A. Castellini. 1977. Thermal Conductance of Immersed Pinniped and Sea Otter Pelts before and after Oiling with Prudhoe Bay Crude. In: D.A. Wolfe (Ed.). Fate and Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine Ecosystems and Organisms. Perrgamon Press. New York, N.Y. pp. 151-157.

Kooyman, G.L. and D.P. Costa. 1979. Effects of Oiling and Temperature Regulation in Sea Otters. 1979.

Kukowski, G.E. 1972. A Checklist of the Fishes of the Monterey Bay Area Including Elkhorn Slough, The San Lorenzo, Pajaro, and Salinas Rivers. Technical Publication 72-2. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories.

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Lewis, D.B. and W.B. Tyler. 1987. Cliff and Island Nesting Birds. Pp 78-109 In: Management Recommendations for Coastal Terrace and Island Resources at Ano Nuevo State Reserve. Final Rep. to Calif. Dept. of Parks and Recreation, Ano Nuevo State Reserve.

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Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey for Northern and Central California. 1987. Quartely Report No. 30, October to December, 1986. California Department of Fish and Game, Marine Resources Administrative Report No. 87-9.

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Martin, M. and W. Castle. 1984. Petrowatch: Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Synthetic Organic Compounds, and Heavy Metals in Mussels From the Monterey Bay Area of Central California. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 259-266.

McGee, T. 1986. Coastal Erosion Along Monterey Bay. Thesis. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA.

McGrath, J. 1986. Developing a Sand Budget For Monterey Bay: Sand Sources and the Role of Sand Mining. Selected Repts. in Ocean and Arctic Eng. (In press).

McGrath, J. 1987. Sand Mining and Erosion in Monterey Bay. Proc. of Coastal Zone 1987 Symposium. May 1987, Seattle, WA.

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Monterey County Agriculture, Food for Thought. 1988.

Morris, R.H., D.P. Abbott, and E.C. Haderlie. 1980. Intertidal Invertebrates of the Central California Coast. 3rd ed. Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley, CA 761p.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1979. "Georges Bank Marine Issue Paper." Office of Coastal Zone Management. Washington, D.C. July 27, 1979.

NOAA. 1982. Management Plan for the Proposed Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Sanctuary Programs Office, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

NOAA. 1983. National Marine Sanctuary Site Evaluations. Recommendations and Final Reports. Prepared by, Chelsea International Corporation for NOAA, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, Sanctuary Programs Division. Contract No. NA-82-SAC-00647.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1987. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Management Plan. Prepared for U.S. DOC/NOAA/MEMD. Prepared by James Dobbin Assoc. Inc. Coastal and Ocean Planners, Alexandria, VA. Contract No. NO-81- ABC 00209.

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Patten, B.G. 1977. Sublethal Biological Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposures: Fish. In: D.C. Malins (Ed.) Effects of Petroleum of Arctic and Subarctic Marine Environments and Organisms. Academic Press. New York, N.Y. pp.319-332

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Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). 1989. Draft Water Quality Control Plan.

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Remsen, J.V. 1978. Bird Species of Special Concern in California--An Annotated List of Declining or Vulnerable Species. Calif. Dept. Fish and Game, Nongame Wildlife Investigations Project PR W-54-R- 9, Wildlife Management Branch Administrative Rep. No. 78-1. Sacramento, CA. 54pp.

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Riedman, Marianne. 1987. Summary of Information on the Biology of the Sea Otter. Volume II, Technical Support Document I, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Translocation of Southern Sea Otters (USFWS).

Riznyk, R.Z. 1977. Phytoplankton. Chapter III In: Winzler and Kelly Consultants (eds). A Summary of Knowledge of the Central and Northern California Coastal Zone and Offshore Areas; Vol.II: Biological Conditions. NTIS PB-274 212.

Roberson, D. 1985. Monterey Birds: Status and Distribution of Birds in Monterey County, California. Monterey Peninsula Audubon Society, Carmel, CA. 266p.

Robson, A.J. 1990. Circulation of California Undercurrent near Monterey in May 1989. Thesis. Naval postgraduate School, Monterey, CA.

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Samuels, W.B. and K.J. Lanfear. 1980. An Oil Spill Risk Analysis for Central and Northern California (proposed OCS Sale #53) Outer Continental Shelf Lease Area. U.S. Geological Survey. Open File Report #80-211.

Santa Cruz County Conference and Visitors Council. 1989. Memo to Congressman Leon E. Panetta, May 25, 1989.

Santa Cruz Port District. 1987. Annual Management Report: Fiscal Year 1986/1987. 75p.

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Scarff, J. E. 1987. Historic and Present Distribution Of the Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) in the Eastern North Pacific South of 50šN and East of 180šW. Rep. Int. Whale. Comm. Special Issue 10:43-64.

Schoenerr, J.R. 1988. Blue Whales Feeding On High Concentrations of Euphausiids Around Monterey Submarine Canyon. Master's Thesis, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories. 43pp.

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Schwing, F.B., J.G. Norton and C.H. Pilskaln. 1990a Earthquake and bay: response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta earthquake. Transactions, American Geophysical Union. 71:250-251.

Shaw, S.B. 1972. DDT Residues in Eight California Marine Fishes. Calif. Fish & Game 58(1):22-26.

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