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Cover
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Part I:
Executive Summary
Part II:
The Affected Environment
  I. Regional Context
  II. Sanctuary Resources
  III. Human ActivitiesI
  IV. Existing Resource Protection Regime
Part III:
Alternatives Including The Preferred Alternative
  I. Boundary Alternatives
  II.Regulatory Alternatives
  III. Management Alternatives
Part IV
Environmental Concequences
  I. Boundary Alternatives
  II. Regulatory Alternatives
  III. Management Alternative Consequences
  IV. Unavoidable Adverse Environmental or Socioeconomic Effects
  V. Relationship Between Short-term Uses of the Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement of Long-term Productivity
Part V:
Sanctuary Management Plan
  I. Introduction
  II. Resource Protection
  III. Research
  IV. Education
  V. Administration
Part VI:
List of Preparers and Alternatives
Part VII:
List of Agencies, Organizations, and Persons Receiving Copies
Part VIII:
References
Part IX
Appendices
VOLUME I
  LIST OF FIGURES
  LIST OF TABLES
  PART I: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
   
I. Introduction I-3
II. The National Marine Sanctuary Program I-4
III. History of the Monterey Bay Proposal I-8
IV. Purpose and Need for Designation I-11
  A. Introduction I-11
  B. Natural and Historical Resources I-15
  C. Present and Potential Uses I-16
  D. Adequacy of Existing Authorities to Manage the Area I-17
  E. Benefits Derived From Sanctuary Status I-19
    1. Oil, Gas and Mineral Activities I-20
    2. Discharges and Deposits into the Sanctuary and I-21
    3. Discharges and Deposits that Enter the Sanctuary and Injure a Sanctuary Resource or Quality I-21
    4. Moving, Removing or Injuring Historical Resources I-22
    5. Alteration of or Construction on the Seabed I-22
    6. Taking Marine Mammals, Seabirds or Turtles I-22
    7. Overflights I-22
    8. Personal Water Craft I-23
    9. Vessel Traffic I-23
    10. Fishing/Aquaculture/Kelp harvesting I-24
V. Socioeconomic Effects of Designation
I-24
  A. Fishing/Aquaculture/Kelp harvesting I-25
  B. Oil, Gas and Minerals I-25
  C. Discharge and Deposits I-26
  D. Personal Water Craft I-27
  E. Overflights I-27
  F. Vessel Traffic I-27
  G. Alteration of or Construction on the Seabed I-28
VI. Manageability of the Area
I-29
VII. Consultations
I-30
  A. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) I-30
  B. Endangered Species Act (ESA) I-30
  C. Resource Assessment I-31
  D. Federal Consistency Determination I-31
  E. Fishery Regulations I-31
  F. Other Federal and State Agencies and the U.S. Congress I-31
  PART II: THE AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT
   
I. Section: The Regional Context II-4
A. Sanctuary Location II-4
B. Regional Access II-5
II. Section: Sanctuary Resources II-6
A. Introduction II-6
B. Environmental Conditions II-7
1. Geological Oceanography II-7
2. Meteorology II-10
3. Physical Oceanography II-11
a. Waves II-11
b. Water Temperature II-12
c. Offshore Ocean Currents II-12
d. Upwelling and Eddies II-14
e. Nearshore coastal currents II-17
f. Freshwater input II-18
4. Water Quality II-18

C. Habitats

II-25
1. Introduction II-25
2. Submarine Canyon Habitat II-25
3. Nearshore Sublittoral Habitat II-27
4. Rocky Intertidal Habitat II-27
5. Sandy Beach Intertidal Habitat II-28
6. Kelp Forest Habitat II-28
7. Estuaries and Sloughs II-29

D. Biological Resources

II-31
1. Introduction II-31
2. Plankton II-31
3. Algae II-32
4. Invertebrates II-34
5. Fishes II-36
6. Seabirds II-40
7. Turtles II-44
8. Marine Mammals II-44
a. Pinnipeds II-44
b. Cetaceans II-48
c. Fissipeds II-50

E. Cultural and Historical Resources

II-53
1. Historic sites II-53
2. Shipwrecks II-54
F. Existing Protected Areas II-54
1. State Refuges and Reserves II-57
a. Ecological Reserves II-57
b. Game Refuges II-58
c. Marine Life Refuges II-59
d. Fish Refuge II-59
e. Marine Reserves II-60
2. State Historic Parks II-61
3. California State Park System and Beaches II-61

III. Section: Human Activities

II-63
A. Fishing II-63
1. Commercial Fishing II-63
2. Aquaculture II-63
3. Kelp Harvesting II-67
B. Hydrocarbon and Mineral Activities II-68
1. Oil and Gas II-68
2. Sand Mining II-70

C. Vessel Traffic, Harbors and Dredging

II-70
1. Vessel Traffic II-70
a. Commercial Shipping II-70
b. Commercial Fishing Vessels II-73
c. Research Vessels II-73
d. Recreational Boating II-73
2. Harbors II-74
a. Santa Cruz Harbor II-74
b. Moss Landing Harbor II-74
c. Monterey Harbor II-74
d. Princeton/Pillar Point Harbor II-74
3. Dredging II-79
4. Dredge Disposal II-79

D. Discharges, and Non-Dredge Material Dump Sites

II-79
1. Point Source Discharges II-79
2. Non-Point Source Discharges II-86
3. Non-Dredge Material Dump Sites II-86
E. Military Activity II-88
F. Research and Education II-90
G. Land Use II-93
H. Coastal Development II-96
I. Recreational Activities and Tourism II-96
1. Tourism II-96
2. Coastal Recreation Areas II-98
3. Recreational Boating II-98
4. "Personal water craft" II-98
5. Recreational Fishing II-99
6. Intertidal Collecting II-102
7. Diving II-102
8. Nature Observation II-102
9. Surfing II-102

IV. Section: Existing Resource Protection Regime

II-104
A. Introduction II-104
B. Federal Authorities II-104
C. State Authorities II-105
  PART III: ALTERNATIVES INCLUDING THE PREFERRED ALTERNATIVE
   
I. Section: Boundary Alternatives III-5
A. Introduction III-5
B. Boundary Alternative 1 III-6
1. Geography III-6
2. Distinguishing Characteristics III-6
C. Boundary Alternative 2 III-10
1. Geography III-10
2. Distinguishing Characteristics III-10
D. Boundary Alternative 3 III-14
1. Geography III-14
2. Distinguishing Characteristics III-14
E. Boundary Alternative 4 III-18
1. Geography III-18
2. Distinguishing Characteristics III-18
F. Boundary Alternative 5 (Preferred) III-22
1. Geography III-22
2. Distinguishing Characteristics III-22
G. Boundary Alternative 6 III-26
1. Geography III-26
2. Distinguishing Characteristics III-26
H. Boundary Alternative 7 III-30
1. Geography III-30
2. Distinguishing Characteristics III-30

II. Section: Regulatory Alternatives

III-34
A. Introduction III-34
B. Oil, Gas and Mineral Activities III-40
1. Status Quo III-40
a. Existing Regulatory Framework III-40
b. Impact to Resources III-40
c. Impact to Uses III-41
2. Sanctuary Alternative 1 III-41
a. Sanctuary Action III-41
b. Impact to Resources III-42
c. Impact to Uses III-42
3. Sanctuary Alternative 2 (Preferred) III-42
a. Sanctuary Action III-42
b. Impact to Resources III-43
c. Impact to Uses III-43
C. Discharges or Deposits III-44
1. Status Quo III-44
a. Existing Regulatory Framework III-44
(1) Point Source Discharges III-45
(2) Non-Point Source Discharges (NPS) III-45
(3) Hazardous waste, oil and trash disposal III-46

(4) Ocean dumping

III-47
b. Impact to Resources III-47
c. Impact to Uses III-48
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) III-49
a. Sanctuary Action III-49
b. Impact to Resources III-49
c. Impact to Uses III-50
(1) Vessels III-51
(2) Dredge Disposal Activities III-51
(3) Point Source Discharges III-52
(4) Non-Point Source Discharges (NPS)III-54
D. Historical Resources III-55
1. Status Quo III-55
a. Existing Regulatory Framework III-55
b. Impact to Resources III-55
c. Impact to Uses III-56
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) III-56
a. Sanctuary Action III-56
b. Impact to Resources III-56
c. Impact to Uses III-57

E. Alteration of or Construction on the Seabed

III-58
1. Status Quo III-58
a. Existing Regulatory Framework III-58
b. Impact to Resources III-58
c. Impact to Uses III-59
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) III-59
a. Sanctuary Action III-59
b. Impact to Resources III-59
c. Impact to Uses III-59
F. Taking Marine Mammals, Turtles and Seabirds III-61
1. Status Quo III-61
a. Existing Regulatory Framework III-61
b. Impact to Resources III-61
c. Impact to Uses III-61
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) III-61
a. Sanctuary Action III-61
b. Impact to Resources III-62
c. Impact to Uses III-62

G. Overflights

III-63
1. Status Quo III-63
a. Existing Regulatory Framework III-63
b. Impact to Resources III-63
c. Impact to Uses III-63
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) III-63
a. Sanctuary Action III-63
b. Impact to Resources III-64
c. Impact to Uses III-64
H. Operation of "Personal Water Craft" III-66
1. Status Quo III-66
a. Existing Regulatory Framework III-66
b. Impact to Resources III-66
c. Impact to Uses III-66
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) III-66
a. Sanctuary Action III-66
b. Impact to Resources III-67
c. Impact to Uses III-69
I. Vessel Traffic III-70

1. Status Quo (Preferred)

III-70
a. Existing Regulatory Framework III-70
b. Impact to Resources III-70
c. Impact to Uses III-72
2. Sanctuary Alternative III-73
a. Sanctuary Action III-73
b. Impact to Resources III-73
c. Impact to Uses III-74
J. Fishing, Kelp Harvesting and Aquaculture III-75
1. Status Quo (Preferred) III-75
a. Existing Regulatory Framework III-75
b. Impact to Resources III-75
c. Impact to Uses III-79
2. Sanctuary Alternative III-81
a. Sanctuary Action III-81
b. Impact to Resources III-81
c. Impact to Uses III-81

III. Section: Management Alternatives

III-82
A. Introduction III-82
B. Alternatives III-82
1. Status Quo III-82
2. Sanctuary Management Alternative 1 III-82
3. Sanctuary Management Alternative 2 (Preferred)III-82
   
  PART IV: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF ALTERNATIVES
   

I. Section: Boundary Alternatives

IV-5
A. IntroductionIV-5
B. Boundary Alternative 1 IV-5
C. Boundary Alternative 2 IV-8
D. Boundary Alternative 3 IV-10
E. Boundary Alternative 4 IV-11
F. Boundary Alternative 5 IV-12
G. Boundary Alternative 6 IV-13
H. Boundary Alternative 7 IV-14
II. Section: Regulatory AlternativesIV-16
A. Introduction IV-16
B. Oil, Gas and Mineral Activities IV-17
1. Status Quo IV-17
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-17
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-22
2. Sanctuary Alternative 2 (Preferred) IV-22
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-22
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-25

C. Discharges or Deposits

IV-27
1. Status Quo IV-27
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-27
(1) Discharges from Point Sources IV-27
(2) Discharges from Non-Point Sources (NPS) IV-28
(3) Hazardous waste, oil and trash disposal IV-29
(4) Ocean dumping IV-30
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-30
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) IV-31
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-31
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-31

D. Historical Resources

IV-36

1. Status Quo

IV-36
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-36
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-36
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) IV-36
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-36
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-37
E. Alteration of or Construction on the Seabed IV-39
1. Status Quo IV-39
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-39
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-40
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) IV-40
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-40
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-41

F. Taking Marine Mammals, Turtles and Seabirds

IV-42
1. Status Quo IV-42
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-42
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-43
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) IV-43

a. Consequence of Impact to Resources

IV-43
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-43
G. Overflights IV-45
1. Status Quo IV-45
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-45
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-45
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) IV-45
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-45
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-46

H. Operation of "Personal Water Craft"

IV-48
1. Status Quo IV-48
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-48
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-48
2. Sanctuary Alternative (Preferred) IV-48
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-48
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-48
I. Vessel Traffic IV-50
1. Status Quo (Preferred) IV-50
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-50
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-51
2. Sanctuary Alternative IV-53
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-53
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-53

J. Fishing, Kelp harvesting and Aquaculture

IV-54
1. Status Quo (Preferred) IV-54
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-54
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-54
2. Sanctuary Alternative IV-54
a. Consequence of Impact to Resources IV-54
b. Consequence of Impact to Uses IV-55

III. Section: Management Alternative Consequences

IV-56
A. Consequences of Status Quo IV-56
1. Enforcement IV-56
2. Research and Education IV-57
B. Consequences of Sanctuary Alternative 1. IV-58
1. Enforcement IV-58
2. Research and Education IV-58
C. Consequences of Sanctuary Alternative 2 (Preferred) IV-58
1. Enforcement IV-58
2. Research and Education IV-59
IV. Section: Unavoidable Adverse Environmental or Socioeconomic EffectsIV-61
V. Section: Relationship Between Short-term Uses of the Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement of Long-term ProductivityIV-63
   
  PART V: SANCTUARY MANAGEMENT PLAN
   
I. Section Introduction V-3
II. Section: Resource Protection V-6
A. Introduction V-6
B. Goals V-6
C. Sanctuary Regulations V-7
D. Contingency Plans V-7
1. Existing Capabilities V-8
2. Sanctuary Action V-10
E. Compatible Use of the Sanctuary V-11
F. Surveillance and Enforcement V-13
1. Sanctuary Action and Coordination with Existing Agencies V-13
2. Public Education and Information V-14
3. Planning and Coordination V-15

III. Section: Research

V-16
A. Introduction V-16
B. Goals V-17
C. Framework for Research V-18
1. Baseline Studies V-18
2. Monitoring V-20
3. Predictive Studies V-22
D. Selection and Management of Research Projects V-23
1. Preparing an Annual Plan V-23
2. Monitoring Progress V-23
3. Information Exchange V-23

IV. Section Education

V-24
A. Introduction V-24
B. Goals V-24
C. Educational Opportunities V-25
D. Educational Programs V-26
1. Site Visitor Programs V-26
2. Information Center Programs V-27
3. Outreach Programs V-28

V. Section: Administration

V-30
A. Introduction V-30
1. Sanctuaries and Reserves Division V-30
2. Sanctuary Advisory Committee V-30
3. Federal Agencies V-31
4. State, regional and local agencies V-32
B. Resource Protection V-32
C. Research V-36
D. Education V-37
E. General Administration V-38
F. Staffing Levels V-41
G. Headquarters and Visitor Center Facilities V-41
  PART VI: LIST OF PREPARERS AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  PART VII: LIST OF AGENCIES, ORGANIZATIONS, AND PERSONS RECEIVING COPIES
  PART VIII:REFERENCES

 

VOLUME II
  PART IX: APPENDICES
    A. Federal Advisory Committee Act
    B. Proposed Notice of Designation and Final Rule Making
      I: Background
      II: Designation Document
      III: Summary of Final Management Plan
      IV: Summary of Regulations
      V. Miscellaneous Rulemaking Requirements
    C. Existing State and Federal Authorities Relevant to the Sanctuary C-1
    I. State and Federal Authorities Applicable to the Monterey Bay Area C-3
   

II. State Authorities

C-3
    A. California Coastal Act C-3
    B. California Environmental Protection Agency C-5
    C. Water Quality Control Act C-6
    D. Fish and Game Code C-6
    1. Regulations of Sport and Commercial Fishing C-7
    2. Endangered Species C-8
    3. Protection of Migratory Birds C-8
    4. Oil Spill Contingency Plans C-8
    E. SB 2040, Lempert-Keene Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act C-9
    F. Cunningham-Shell Tidelands Act C-3
    G. Control of Oil Discharges from Vessels C-10
    H. Air Resources C-11
   

III. Federal Authorities

C-12
    A. Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act C-12
    B. Endangered Species Act C-12
    C. Marine Mammal Protection Act C-13
    D. Migratory Bird Treaty Act C-14
    E. Clean Water Act C-15
    F. Rivers and Harbors Act C-16
    G. Ports and Waterways Safety Act C-17
    H. Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships C-18
    I. Oil Pollution Act C-19
    J. Federal Aviation Act C-21
    K. Clean Air Act C-21
    L. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act C-22
    M. Title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act C-22
    N. National Historic Preservation Act C-23
    O. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act C-23
    IV. Additional Special Areas/Agencies C-24 A. Los Padres National Forest C-24
    APPENDIX D: DISCHARGE AND DEPOSITS INTO THE MONTEREY BAY AREA
    APPENDIX E: ABBREVIATIONS
    F. Responses to Comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Management Plan  
    G. Water Quality Memorandum of Agreement  
    H. Opinion of Counsel on Designation of Ocean Dump Sites  
    I. NOS/NMFS Memorandum of Understanding  
URL: http://montereybay.noaa.gov/intro/mp/archive/original_eis/toc.html    Reviewed: March 05, 2014
Web Site Owner: National Ocean Service

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